Pharmacologic treatments for covid-19 patients

We are searching the literature every day and collecting data for each RCT of COVID-19 treatment identified.

Below you can access all the treatment comparisons where data are available as well as a table with the general characteristics of each trial. For each treatment comparison, you can access the forest plots for all the outcomes of interest available as well as the Summary of Findings (SoF) table.

We are updating the evidence synthesis every Friday. The updates of evidence profiles and summary of findings tables are uploaded for comparisons with results for at least two studies.

Create and download your forest plots with the most up-to-date data here

Treatment comparisons

We report below the forest plots for the main treatment comparisons.

Please choose a Treatment Comparison type then a Treatment Comparison:

    Anti-virals (35 comparisons)

    Other antimicrobials (antibiotics, antimalarials, antiparasitics) (21 comparisons)

    NSAIDs and Anti-inflammatories (2 comparisons)

    Kinase inhibitor (3 comparisons)

    Corticosteroids (2 comparisons)

    Monoclonal antibodies (10 comparisons)

    Immunosupressant (1 comparisons)

    Convalescent plasma (3 comparisons)

    Antithrombotic (antiplatelet, anticoagulant, thrombolytic drug) (2 comparisons)

    Other Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) (3 comparisons)

    Others (24 comparisons)

Reboot the table and see all comparisons

Network diagrams

Networks

The nodes represent the interventions being compared in the available RCTs. Two interventions are connected with a line whenever there is at least one RCT comparing them directly. The size of the nodes is proportional to the total number of participants randomised in each intervention and the thickness of the line is proportional to the precision (i.e. the inverse of the variance) of the relative effect for the respective direct comparison. The color of the lines represents the overall risk of bias of the direct comparisons for the outcome that corresponds to each network diagram. When two or more RCTs compare the same pair of interventions, then the risk of bias of that comparison is calculated as the inverse variance weighted average of the study-specific overall risk of bias judgements.

Description of primary studies

In this table, we report the main characteristics of the RCTs identified.

The link in the column Overall risk of bias will give you access to a complete description of the assessment of each risk of bias domain with supports for judgement. The overall risk of bias reported in the table corresponds to the highest risk of bias for the outcomes assessed for the systematic review. The link in the column Full description will give you access to the general characteristics of the study.

The components included in the standard of care vary among the included studies. For example, the standard of care may include antiviral treatments in some studies, but not in others. We are in the process of contacting the study authors to obtain more information.

We acknowledge that we may have been unable to extract some information from pre-prints, as they represent preliminary forms of scientific communication.

Trial Funding Comparisons Design Participants Sample size Overall risk
of bias
Full description
Treatment 1 Treatment 2
IRCT20200328046886N1
Abbaspour Kasgari H, J Antimicrob Chemoth, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit SOF/DCV+RBV Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to a single center in Iran. N=48
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04353336
Abd-Elsalam S, Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-severe) admitted to three university hospitals in Egypt. N=194
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04447534
Abd-Elsalam S, Biol Trace Elem Res, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Not reported/unclear Hydroxychloroquine+Zinc Hydroxychloroquine RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to 3 centers in Egypt N=191
Some concerns
Details

Full description

CTRI/2020/04/024775
Agarwal A, BMJ, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Convalescent plasma Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild to severe) admitted to 39 centers in India. N=464
High
Details

Full description

*
Ahmed S,Int J Infect Dis,2020
Full text
Commentary
Private Ivermectin+Doxycycline Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild) admitted to hospital in Bangladesh. N=72
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Ivermectin+Doxycycline Ivermectin
Ivermectin Placebo
NCT04356534
AlQahtani M, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Public/non profit Convalescent plasma Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe) admitted to 2 centers in Bahrain N=40
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04573153
Altay O, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Private Combined metabolic cofactor supplementation Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild) treated at a single center in Turkey N=93
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT02735707
Angus DC, JAMA, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Fixed-dose hydrocortisone Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (severe-critical) admitted to 121 centers in 8 countries N=251
Some concerns
Details

Full description

IRCT20200317046797N4
Ansarin K, BioImpacts, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Bromhexine Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (unclear severity) at a single center in Iran N=78
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04366089
Araimo F , J Med Virol, 2020
Full text
Commentary
No specific funding Oxygen-Ozone+Probiotic Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to a single center in Italy N=28
High
Details

Full description

NCT04345523
Avendano-Sola C, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Convalescent plasma Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to 14 centers in Spain N=81
Some concerns
Details

Full description

new
ISRCTN40302986
Babalola OE, IVERCOVID, medRxiv, 2021
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Private Ivermectin 6mg Ivermectin 12mg RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to a single center in Nigeria N=62
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Ivermectin 6mg Lopinavir-Ritonavir
Ivermectin 12mg Lopinavir-Ritonavir
NCT04346446
Bajpai M, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
No specific funding Convalescent plasma Fresh frozen plasma RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe) admitted to a single center in India N=31
High
Details

Full description

NCT04375098
Balcells M, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
Public/non profit Early Convalescent plasma Late Convalescent plasma RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to a single centre in Chile. N=58
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04542694
Balykova L, Infektsionnye bolezn, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Private Favipiravir Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to 5 centers in Russia N=200
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04280705
Beigel JH, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Remdesivir Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to 60 centers in 10 countries. N=1062
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04323527
Borba MGS, JAMA Netw Open, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Chloroquine Chloroquine RCT Patients with Severe/Critical respiratory syndrome secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection treated in a single center in Brazil. N=80
Low
Details

Full description

Forest plots
NCT04329832
Brown SM, Ann Am Thorac Soc, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Hydroxychloroquine Azithromycin RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to 13 centers in the USA N=85
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000029308
Cao B, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
Mixed Lopinavir-Ritonavir Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe) admitted to a single center in China. N=199
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR-OPN-200002958
Cao Y, J Allergy Clin Immun, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Ruxolitinib Vitamin C RCT Patients with COVID-19 (severe) admitted to 3 centers in China. N=43
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04322123
Cavalcanti AB, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to 55 centers in Brazil N=667
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin Standard care
Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin Hydroxychloroquine
NCT04390022
Chaccour C, Research square , 2020
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Mixed Ivermectin Placebo RCT Outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild) attending the emergency room at a single center in Spain N=24
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000030254
Chen C, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Favipiravir Umifenovir RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate, Severe/Critical) admitted to 3 center N=240
High
Details

Full description

NCT04384380
Chen CP, Plos one, 2020
Full text
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to 11 centers in Taiwan N=33
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04261517
Chen J, Journal of Zhejiang , 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Treatment-naive patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to a single N=30
High
Details

Full description

NCT04252274
Chen J, Open Forum Infect Di, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Darunavir/cobicistat Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to a single center in China N=30
High
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000030054
Chen L, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public Hydroxychloroquine Chloroquine RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild, moderate) admitted to a single center in China N=67
High
Details

Full description

Chloroquine Standard care
Hydroxychloroquine Standard care
NCT04427501
Chen P, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Private LY-CoV555 Placebo RCT Outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild) treated at 41 centers in USA N=467
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000029559
Chen Z, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
Public/non profit Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to a single center in China. N=62
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000030007
Cheng L, JAMA Intern Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed rhG-CSF Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to 3 centers in China N=200
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04434144
Chowdhury ATMM, Research Square, 2020
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
No specific funding Ivermectin+Doxycycline Hydroxychloroquine+Azithromycin RCT Outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (asymptomatic, mild) treated at a single center in Bangladesh N=125
High
Details

Full description

EudraCT202000193437
Corral-Gudino L, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
No specific funding Methylprednisolone Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (severe) admitted to a 5 centers in Spain N=64
High
Details

Full description

RPCEC00000317
Cruz LR, ACS Pharmacol Trans, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Mixed CIGB-325 Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (asymptomatic-severe) admitted to a single center in Cuba N=20
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04349241
Dabbous HM, Research Square, 2020
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
Private Favipiravir Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to 2 centers in Egypt N=100
Some concerns
Details

Full description

IRCT20190727044343N1
Davoodi L, Int J Clin Pract, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Febuxostat Hydroxychloroquine RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-moderate) treated at a single center in Iran N=60
Some concerns
Details

Full description

IRCT20100228003449N2
Davoudi-Monfared E, Antimicrob Agents Ch, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Private Interferon beta-1a Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (moderate to critical) admitted to a single center in Iran. N=92
High
Details

Full description

NCT04386694
De Marchi T, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
; Commentary
Mixed Photobiomodulation therapy Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (critical) admitted to a single center in Brazil. N=30
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04326790
Deftereos S, JAMA, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Private Colchicine Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to 16 centers in Greece. N=110
Some concerns
Details

Full description

RPCEC00000309
Delgado-Enciso I, Research Square, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Mixed Neutral electrolyzed saline Standard care RCT Outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (ambulatory, mild) treated at home in Mexico. N=84
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT02517489
Dequin P-F, JAMA, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Hydrocortisone Placebo RCT Patients with COVID-19 (severe-critical) admitted to 9 centers in France N=149
Low
Details

Full description

jRCTs041190120
Doi Y, Antimicrob Agents Ch, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Favipiravir Favipiravir RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (asymptomatic-mild-moderate) admitted to multiple centers in Japan N=88
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04244591
Du, unpublished, 2020
Public/non profit Methylprednisolone Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe-critical) admitted to multiple centers in China N=47
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04355936
Duarte M, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Telmisartan Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (unclear severity) admitted to 2 centers in Argentina N=82
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04325893
Dubee V, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Public/non profit Hydroxychloroquine Placebo RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to 34 centres in France and Monaco. N=250
Low
Details

Full description

IRCT20200404046947N1
Edalatifard M, Eur Respir J, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Intravenous pulse Methylprednisolone Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe) admitted to two centers in Iran N=68
High
Details

Full description

NCT04366908
Entrenas Castillo M, J Steroid Biochem Mo, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Calcifediol Standard care RCT Patients with confimed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to a single center in Spain N=76
Some concerns
Details

Full description

RPCEC00000307
Esquivel-Moynelo I, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit IFN alpha2b+IFN gamma Interferon alpha2b RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (ambulatory, mild) admitted to a single center N=79
High
Details

Full description

IRCT20200406046963N1
Farahani R, Research Square, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit IVMP Pulse then Prednisolone Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (severe) admitted to a single center in Iran N=29 N/A

Full description

new
NCT04354259
Feld JJ, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Mixed Peginterferon Lambda-1 Placebo RCT Outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild) tested at 6 centers in Canada N=60
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000030262
Fu W, EClinicalMedicine, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Interferon kappa+TFF2 Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to a single center in China N=80
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04321278
Furtado RHM, Lancet, 2020
Full text
Mixed Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin Hydroxychloroquine RCT Patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-critical) admitted to 57 centers in Brazil N=447
Some concerns
Details

Full description

RBR-8969zg
Garcia de Alencar JC, CID, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit N-acetylcysteine Placebo RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-severe) admitted to a single center in Brazil N=140 N/A

Full description

NCT04365127
Ghandehari S, SSRN, 2020
Full text
Commentary
; Commentary
Private Progesterone Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-severe) admitted to a single center in the USA. N=42
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04342182
Gharbharan A, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Mixed Convalescent plasma Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (moderate-critical) admitted to 14 centers in the Netherlands N=86
High
Details

Full description

IRCT20200501047259N1
Gharebaghi N, BMC Infect Dis., 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Intravenous Immunoglobulin Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe) admitted to a single center in Iran N=59 N/A

Full description

NCT04292899
Goldman JD, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Results in clinicaltrials.gov
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
Private Remdesivir 5 days Remdesivir 10 days RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate to critical) admitted to 55 centers across 5 countries. N=402
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Forest plots
ISRCTN59048638
Gonzalez-Ochoa AJ , medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Private Sulodexide Placebo RCT Outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild) of a single center in Mexico N=312
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT02735707
Gordon AC, REMAP-CAP, medRxiv, 2021
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Mixed Tocilizumab Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 (severe-critical) admitted to 113 centers in Australia, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, UK. N=826
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Tocilizumab Sarilumab
Sarilumab Standard care
N/A
Guvenmez O, J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol, 2020
Full text
Commentary
No specific funding Lincomycin Azithromycin RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to a single center in Turkey N=24
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04331808
Hermine O, JAMA Intern Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Tocilizumab Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to nine centers in France N=131
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04381936
Horby P, Lancet, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Lopinavir-Ritonavir Standard care RCT Patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to 163 centers in the UK N=5040
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04381936 ; ISRCTN 50189673
Horby P, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Mixed Azithromycin Standard care RCT Patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (mild to critical) admitted to 176 centers in the UK N=7764
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04381936
RECOVERY Trial
Horby P, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Dexamethasone Standard care RCT Patients with suspected and confirmed COVID-19 (moderate to critical) admitted to 176 centers in the UK N=6425
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Forest plot
(sub group)
NCT04381936
Horby P, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to 176 centers in the UK N=4716
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000029387
Huang YQ, Front Pharmacol, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Ribavirin+Lopinavir+Ritonavir+Interferon alpha Ribavarin+Interferon alpha RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to a single center in China N=101
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Lopinavir+Ritonavir+Interferon alpha Ribavarin+Interferon alpha
Ribavirin+Lopinavir+Ritonavir+Interferon alpha Lopinavir+Ritonavir+Interferon alpha
NCT04276688
Hung IF-N, Lancet, 2020
Full text
31042-4.pdf Commentary
(20)31101-6 and Commentary
Public/non profit LPV/r+RBV+IFN beta1 Lopinavir-Ritonavir RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (unclear severity) admitted to six centers in Hong-Kong N=127
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04434248
Ivashchenko AA, Clin Infect Dis, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Favipiravir 1800/800mg Favipiravir 1600/600mg RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to 6 centers in Russia N=60
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Forest plots
Favipiravir 1600/600mg Standard care
Favipiravir 1800/800mg Standard care
NCT04331899
Jagannathan P, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Mixed Peginterferon Lambda-1a Placebo RCT Outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (asymptomatic, mild) treated at a single center in the USA N=120
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04401579
Kalil A, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Baricitinib+Remdesivir Placebo+Remdesivir RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to 67 centers in Denmark, Japan, Mexico, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, UK, USA. N=1033
Low
Details

Full description

N/A
Khamis F, Int J Infect Dis, 2020
Full text
Commentary
No specific funding Favipiravir+Interferon beta-1b Hydroxychloroquine RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) treated at a single center in Oman N=89
Some concerns
Details

Full description

N/A
Khan Chachar AZ, Int J Sci, 2020
Full text
Commentary
5.Not reported/unclear Ivermectin Standard care RCT Outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (symptomatic-mild) treated at a single center in Pakistan N=50
High
Details

Full description

new
CTRI/2020/08/027225
Kirti R, medRxiv, 2021
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Mixed Ivermectin Placebo RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-severe) admitted to a single center in India N=115
High
Details

Full description

NCT04381884
Krolewiecki A, SSRN, 2020
Full text
Commentary
; Commentary
Mixed Ivermectin Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to 4 centers in Argentina N=45
Some concerns
Details

Full description

CTRI/2020/05/024959
Kumar S, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Private Itolizumab Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe) admitted to 4 centers in India N=32
Some concerns
Details

Full description

new
NCT04355728
Lanzoni G, Stem Cells Transl Me, 2020
Full text
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Mixed Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell infusion Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe) admitted to a single center in USA N=24
Some concerns
Details

Full description

RBR-949z6v
Lemos ACB, Thromb Res, 2020
Full text
Commentary
No specific funding Therapeutic enoxaparin Prophylactic anticoagulant RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (critical) admitted to a single center in Brazil N=20
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04342663
Lenze E, JAMA, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Mixed Fluvoxamine Placebo RCT Outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (ambulatory, mild) treated at home in USA N=181
Low
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000029638
Li C, Research Square, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Recombinant super-compound interferon Interferon alpha RCT Patients with COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to 5 centers in China N=96
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000029757
Li L, JAMA, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Public/non profit Convalescent plasma Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (severe to critical) admitted to 7 centers in China. N=103
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04273763
Li T, Clin Transl Sci , 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Bromhexine Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to a single center in China N=18
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04479163
Libster R, NEJM, 2021
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Convalescent plasma Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild) admitted to multiple centers in Argentina N=160
Low
Details

Full description

EudraCT 2020-001243-
Liesenborghs L, SSRN, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Public/non profit Itraconazole Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 (unclear severity) admitted to a single center in Belgium N=*
Some concerns
Details

Full description

RBR-8jyhxh
Lopes MIF, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Colchicine Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-critical) admitted to a single center in Brazil N=38
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000029544
Lou Y, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Favipiravir Baloxavir marboxil RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (unclear severity) admitted to a single center in China. N=30
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Baloxavir marboxil Standard care
Favipiravir Standard care
NCT04501978
Lundgren J, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed LY-CoV555 Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-severe) admitted to 31 centers in Denmark, Singapore and USA N=326
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04316377
Lyngbakken MN, Nature, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-severe) admitted to a single center in Norway N=53
High
Details

Full description

NCT04523831
Mahmud R, Unpublished, 2020
Full text
Mixed Ivermectin+Doxycycline Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to a single center in Bangladesh N=400
High
Details

Full description

N/A
Maldonado V, INT IMMUNOPHARMACOL, 2020
Full text
Commentary
No specific funding Pentoxifylline Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to a single center in Mexico N=54 N/A

Full description

RBR-5s2mqg
Mansour E, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Icatibant Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (severe) admitted to a single center in Brazil N=30
Some concerns
Details

Full description

C1 Esterase/Kallikrein Inhibitor Standard care
Icatibant C1 Esterase/Kallikrein Inhibitor
NCT04468646
Mehboob R, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
No specific funding Aprepitant+Dexamethasone Dexamethasone RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to a single center in Pakistan N=41
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04345614
Miller J, Crit Care, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Private Auxora Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to 3 centers in USA N=26
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04304053
Mitja O, Clin Infect Dis, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Outpatients with COVID-19 (mild) in an ambulatory setting in Spain N=353
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04385095 ; EudraCT 2020-001023-14
Monk PD, Lancet Respir Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Commentary
Private Nebulised interferon beta-1a Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-severe) admitted to nine centers in the UK N=101
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04449718
Murai I, medRxiv, 2020
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; Commentary
Public/non profit Cholecalciferol Placebo RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-severe) admitted to 2 centres in Brazil N=240
Some concerns
Details

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IRCT20180725040596N2
Nojomi M, BMC Infect Dis., 2020
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Commentary
Public/non profit Hydroxychloroquine+Umifenovir Hydroxychloroquine+Lopinavir+Ritonavir RCT Patients with COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to a single center in Iran N=100
Some concerns
Details

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NCT04349592
Omrani A (Q-PROTECT), EClinicalMedicine, 2020
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Public/non profit Hydroxychloroquine+Azithromycin Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild) treated at two centers in Qatar N=456
Low
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Hydroxychloroquine Placebo
Hydroxychloroquine+Azithromycin Hydroxychloroquine
CTRI/2020/05/025013
Padmanabhan U, medRixv, 2020
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Commentary
Mixed Bacille Calmette-Guérin Placebo RCT “Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to a single center in India” N=60
Some concerns
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ISRCTN83971151; NCT04315948
Pan H, N Engl J Med, 2020
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Mixed Remdesivir Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to 405 centers in 30 countries. N=5475
Low
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ISRCTN83971151; NCT04315948
Pan H, N Engl J Med, 2020
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Mixed Interferon beta-1a Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to 405 centers in 30 countries. N=4127
Low
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ISRCTN83971151; NCT04315948
Pan H, N Engl J Med, 2020
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Mixed Lopinavir-Ritonavir Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to 405 centers in 30 countries. N=2791
Low
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ISRCTN83971151; NCT04315948
Pan H, N Engl J Med, 2020
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Mixed Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to 405 centers in 30 countries. N=1863
Low
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NCT04348305
Perner A, unpublished, 2020
Mixed Hydrocortisone Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe-critical) admitted to 19 centers in Denmark. N=29
Low
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N/A
Podder C, IMC J Med Sci, 2020
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No specific funding Ivermectin Standard care RCT Outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) treated at a single center in Bangladesh N=*
High
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NCT04343729
Prado Jeronimo CM, Clin Infect Dis, 2020
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Public/non profit Methylprednisolone Placebo RCT Patients with COVID-19 (moderate-critical) admitted to a single center in Brazil N=416
High
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IRCT20100228003449N2
Rahmani H, Int Immunopharmacol, 2020
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No specific funding Interferon beta-1b Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to a single center in Iran N=80
Some concerns
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NCT04459247
Rastogi A, Postgrad Med J, 2020
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No specific funding Cholecalciferol Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (symptomatic or asymptomatic mild) admitted to a single center in India N=40 N/A

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CTRI/2020/05/025209
Ray Y, medRxiv, 2020
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Commentary
Commentary
Public/non profit Convalescent plasma Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe) admitted to a single center in India N=80
High
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ChiCTR2000029853
Ren Z, Adv Sci, 2020
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Mixed Azvudine Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to a single center in China N=20
Some concerns
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NCT04552483
Rocco PRM, Eur Respir J, 2020
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Mixed Nitazoxanide Placebo RCT Outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild) treated at 7 centers in Brazil N=475
High
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IRCT20200403046926N1
Roozbeh F, J Antimicrob Chemother, 2020
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Commentary
Public/non profit Sofosbuvir-Daclatasvir Standard care RCT Outpatients with COVID-19 (mild) treated at a single center in Iran N=60 N/A

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NCT04320615
Rosas I, medRxiv, 2020
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Commentary
Mixed Tocilizumab Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to multiple centers across 9 countries N=452
Low
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NCT04501783
Ruzhentsova T, SSRN, 2020
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Private Favipiravir Standard care RCT Patients (and outpatients) with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) treated at 10 centers in Russia N=168
Some concerns
Details

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IRCT20200128046294N2
Sadeghi A, J Antimicrob Chemoth, 2020
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Commentary
Mixed Sofosbuvir+daclatasvir Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to 4 centers in Iran N=70
Some concerns
Details

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NCT04411667
Sakoulas G, Crit Care Expl , 2020
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Private Intravenous Immunoglobulin Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to 2 centers in USA. N=34
Some concerns
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NCT04372186
Salama C, N Engl J Med, 2020
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Commentary
Private Tocilizumab Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-severe) admitted to 65 centers in Brazil, Kenya, Mexico, Peru, South Africa, and USA N=388
Low
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IRCT20200418047126N1
Salehzadeh F, Research Square, 2020
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Public/non profit Colchicine Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (unclear severity) admitted to a single center in Iran N=100
Some concerns
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NCT04346355
Salvarani C, JAMA , 2020
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Commentary
Mixed Tocilizumab Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe) admitted to 24 centers in Italy N=126
Some concerns
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IRCT20200415047092N1
Sekhavati E, Int J Antimicrob Agents, 2020
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Public/non profit Azithromycin Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 confirmed (moderate-severe) admitted to a single center in Iran N=111
Some concerns
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NCT04332991
Self W, JAMA, 2020
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Mixed Hydroxychloroquine Placebo RCT Patients with COVID-19 confirmed (mild-critical) admitted to 34 centers in the USA N=479
Low
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NCT04288102
Shi L, medRxiv, 2020
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Public/non profit Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell infusion Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe) admitted to two centers in China N=101
Low
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N/A
Shogenova LV, Pulmonologiya, 2020
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Not reported/unclear Thermal helium-oxygen mixture Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to a single center in Russia N=60
Some concerns
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ChiCTR2000031494
Shu L, Stem Cell Res Ther, 2020
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Public/non profit Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell infusion Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (severe) admitted to a single center China N=41
Some concerns
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NCT04512027; CTRI/2020/09/027833
Sigamani A,, medRxiv, 2020
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Commentary
Private Prolectin-M Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild) admitted to a single center in India N=10
Some concerns
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NCT04383535
Simonovich VA, N Engl J Med, 2020
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Mixed Convalescent plasma Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe) admitted to 12 centers in Argentina N=334
Some concerns
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NCT04308668
Skipper CP, Ann Intern Med, 2020
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Private Hydroxychloroquine Placebo RCT Symptomatic, non-hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 or probable COVID-19 with high-risk exposure within 4 days of symptom onset. N=491
Some concerns
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NCT04292730
Spinner CD, JAMA, 2020
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Private Remdesivir 5 days Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-severe) admitted to 105 centers in the USA, Europe and Asia N=596
Some concerns
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Remdesivir 10 days Standard care
Remdesivir 5 days Remdesivir 10 days
NCT04356937
Stone JH, N Engl J Med, 2020
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Commentary
Private Tocilizumab Placebo RCT Patients with COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to seven centers in USA N=243
Low
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IRCT20151227025726N20
Tabarsi P, INT IMMUNOPHARMACOL, 2020
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Public/non profit Intravenous Immunoglobulin Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (severe) admitted to a single center in Iran N=84
Some concerns
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ChiCTR2000029868
Tang W, BMJ, 2020
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Mixed Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild, moderate and severe) admitted to 16 centers in China N=150
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04327401
Tomazini BM, JAMA, 2020
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Commentary
Mixed Dexamethasone Standard care RCT Patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (critical) admitted to 41 centers in Brazil N=299
Some concerns
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CTRI/2020/05/025114
Udwadia Z, Int J Infect Dis, 2020
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Commentary
Private Favipiravir Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild/moderate) admitted to 7 centers in India N=150
Some concerns
Details

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NCT04369742
Ulrich RJ, Open Forum Infect Di, 2020
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Commentary
Public/non profit Hydroxychloroquine Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-severe) admitted to 5 centers in USA N=128
High
Details

Full description

NCT04325061
Villar J, unpublished, 2020
Unpublished
Public/non profit Dexamethasone Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (critical) admitted 14 centers in Spain N=19
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04333420
Vlaar APJ, Lancet , 2020
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30341-6 Commentary
Private IFX-1 Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-critical) admitted to three centers N=30
Some concerns
Details

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ChiCTR2000029765
Wang D, SSRN, 2020
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Public/non profit Tocilizumab Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to 6 centers in China N=65
High
Details

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ChiCTR2000030058
Wang M, Clin Infect Dis, 2020
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Commentary
Public/non profit Leflunomide + Interferon alpha2a Interferon alpha2a RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild) admitted to a single center China N=50
Some concerns
Details

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NCT04257656
Wang Y, Lancet, 2020
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31022-9 Commentary
Mixed Remdesivir Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe) admitted to ten centers in China. N=237
Some concerns
Details

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NCT04425629
Weinreich DM, N Engl J Med, 2020
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Commentary
Mixed REGN-COV2 Placebo RCT Outpatients with COVID-19 (symtomatic-mild) treated at 27 centers in USA N=275
Low
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ChiCTR2000030001
Wu X, Engineering, 2020
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Public/non profit Triazavirin Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-critical) admitted to 10 centers in China N=52
Some concerns
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DRKS00022203
Yakoot M, SSRN, 2020
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Private Sofosbuvir+Daclatasvir Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-severe) admitted to a single center in Egypt N=89
Some concerns
Details

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N/A
Yethindra V, Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 2020
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No specific funding Umifenovir Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to a single center in Kyrgyzstan N=30
Some concerns
Details

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ChiCTR2000029431
Yuan, medRxiv, 2020
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Public/non profit Tc-MDP Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (unclear severity) admitted to 2 centers in China N=21 N/A

Full description

NCT04252885
Yueping L, CellPress, 2020
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Commentary
Public/non profit Lopinavir + Ritonavir Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to a single center in China. N=86
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Umifenovir Lopinavir + Ritonavir
Umifenovir Standard care
NCT04264533
Zhang J, Ann. Intensive Care, 2021
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Commentary
Public/non profit Vitamin C Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe-critical) admitted to 3 centers in China N=56
Some concerns
Details

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ChiCTR2000030894, NC
Zhao H
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Public/non profit Favipiravir Favipiravir+Tocilizumab RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-critical) admitted to 4 centers in China N=26
Some concerns
Details

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Tocilizumab Favipiravir+Tocilizumab
Favipiravir Tocilizumab
ChiCTR2000029496
Zheng F, Int J Infect Dis, 2020
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Commentary
Public/non profit Novaferon Lopinavir + Ritonavir RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to a single center in China. N=89
Some concerns
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Novaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir Lopinavir + Ritonavir
Novaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir Novaferon
ChiCTR2000029851
Zhong M, medRxiv, 2020
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Private alfa-Lipoic acid Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe-critical) admitted to 1 center in China. N=17
Some concerns
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Kemran S M medRxiv, 2020 trial was not included in our data analysis due to unconvincing randamization that was not clarified by authors quote " Randomization rules were designed by Dr. xxx together with principal investigators and implemented by an independent statistician who was not involved in data analysis. Stratified random sampling was applied to stratify all eligible patients according to age, gender and comorbidities. Computerized random number generator was used and allocation was done in 2:1 sequence. Cards with each group assignment number randomly generated by computer were placed in sequentially numbered envelopes that were opened as the patients were enrolled".