We include Rnadomized Controlled trials (RCTs). As of March 1, 2022, the COVID-NMA revised its protocol to include only studies evaluating immunomodulators and antiviral therapies.
No restriction on language
Any pharmacological intervention for treating COVID-19 (anti-infectious agents, specific and non-specific immunomodulators,mononoclonal antibidies supportive treatments for patients admitted to the ICU, general treatments for viral infection)
On the 1st of February 2021, the protocol of the review on pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments was amended to consider only the following outcomes:Critical outcomes:
Disease severity was classified as described below according to the clinical status or clinical management of patients. This classification relies on existing classification and clinical expertise (WHO 2020a, WHO 2020b). We considered the description of eligibility criteria as well as the baseline characteristics of participants and classified the severity as follow:
Ambulatory covid-19 outpatients whose clinical symptoms are mild with no sign of pneumonia on imaging.
Worth mentioning that since the classification of severity class was heterogenous among studies, we reclassified the participant disease severity based on the above severity criteria. Consequently, the severity reported by investigators might differ from the severity reported in this review.
Each study is assessed with the Cochrane 'Risk of Bias 2' (RoB 2) tool for randomized controlled trials.We record judgments and justification per domain for all collected outcomes. The Cochrane RoB 2 tool is structured into five domains: 1) risk of bias arising from the randomization process, 2) risk of bias due to deviations from intended interventions, 3) risk of bias due to missing outcome data, 4) risk of bias in the measurement of the outcome, 5) risk of bias in the selection of the reported result.
Note:The risk of bias by domain corresponds to the highest risk of bias among outcomes by domain.
The overall risk of bias corresponds to the overall highest risk of bias assessed among outcomes.
Summary of findings and assessment of the certainty of the evidence
We use the five GRADE considerations (study limitations, consistency of effect, imprecision, indirectness and publication bias) to assess the certainty of a body of evidence related to studies that contributed data to pairwise meta-analyses for prespecified outcomes.
We present 'Summary of findings' tables to present estimated relative and absolute risks for critical outcomes only.
For more information on our methods see our protocol here.