Pharmacologic treatments for covid-19 patients

We are searching the literature every day and collecting data for each RCT of COVID-19 treatment identified.

Below you can access all the treatment comparisons where data are available as well as a table with the general characteristics of each trial. For each treatment comparison, you can access the forest plots for all the outcomes of interest available as well as the Summary of Findings (SoF) table (development in process).

We systematically stratified the results on the disease severity (mild/moderate vs moderate/severe/critical).

Each week we are updating the evidence synthesis.

Treatment comparisons

We report below the forest plots for the main treatment comparisons.

Please choose a Treatment Comparison:

  • Remdesivir vs Placebo
  • Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Standard care
  • Lopinavir + Ritonavir + Ribavirin + Interferon-b-1b vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir
  • Umifenovir vs Standard care
  • Hydroxychloroquine vs Standard care
  • Umifenovir vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir
  • Favipiravir vs Umifenovir
  • a-Lipoic acid vs Placebo

Reboot the table and see all comparisons

Network diagrams

Mild/moderate patients

Moderate/severe patients

The nodes represent the interventions being compared in the available RCTs. Two interventions are connected with a line whenever there is at least one RCT comparing them directly. The size of the nodes is proportional to the total number of participants randomised in each intervention and the thickness of the line is proportional to the precision (i.e. the inverse of the variance) of the relative effect for the respective direct comparison. The color of the lines represents the overall risk of bias of the direct comparisons for the outcome that corresponds to each network diagram. When two or more RCTs compare the same pair of interventions, then the risk of bias of that comparison is calculated as the inverse variance weighted average of the study-specific overall risk of bias judgements.

Description of primary studies

In this table, we report the main characteristics of the RCTs identified.

The link in the column Overall risk of bias will give you access to a complete description of the assessment of each risk of bias domain with supports for judgement.

NB : One study (ChiCTR2000029542, Huang M, J Mol Cell Biol, 2020, Full text, Pubpeer) is pending because it is reported as randomized but registered as an observational study. We contacted the authors and are waiting for their answer.

The components included in the standard of care vary among the included studies. For example, the standard of care may include antiviral treatments in some studies, but not in others. We are in the process of contacting the study authors to obtain more information.

The overall risk of bias reported in the table corresponds to the highest risk of bias for the outcomes assessed for the systematic review.

Trial Funding Comparisons Design Participants Sample size Overall risk
of bias
Full description
Treatment 1 Treatment 2
NCT04257656
Wang Y, Lancet, 2020
Full text
31022-9 Commentary
Public Remdesivir Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe) admitted to ten centers in China. N=237
Some concerns
Details
Full description
new
NCT04280705
Beigel JH, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public Remdesivir Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate to critical) admitted to 60 sites in 10 countries. N=1063
Some concerns
Details
Full description
ChiCTR2000029308
Cao B, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
Public Lopinavir + Ritonavir Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe) admitted to a single center in China. N=199
Some concerns
Details
Full description
NCT04252885
Yueping L, CellPress, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public Lopinavir + Ritonavir Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to a single center in China. N=86
Some concerns
Details
Full description
Umifenovir Lopinavir + Ritonavir
Umifenovir Standard care
NCT04276688
Hung IF-N, Lancet, 2020
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
Unclear Lopinavir + Ritonavir + Ribavirin + Interferon-b-1b Lopinavir + Ritonavir RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (unclear severity) admitted to six centers in Hong-Kong. N=127
Some concerns
Details
Full description
ChiCTR2000030254
Chen C, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public Favipiravir Umifenovir RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate and severe) admitted to 3 centers in China. N=240
High
Details
Full description
ChiCTR2000029868
Tang W, Bmj, 2020
Full text
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
Public Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild, moderate and severe) admitted to 16 centers in China N=150
Some concerns
Details
Full description
NCT04261517
Chen J, Journal of Zhejiang University , 2020
Full text
Public Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Treatment-naive patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to a single center in China. N=30
Some concerns
Details
Full description
ChiCTR2000029559
Chen Z, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
Public Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to a single center in China. N=62
High
Details
Full description
NCT04323527
Borba MGS, Jama Netw Open, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public Chloroquine Chloroquine RCT Patients with severe respiratory syndrome secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection treated in a single in Brazil. N=81
Some concerns
Details
Full description
ChiCTR2000029851
Zhong M, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
None a-Lipoic acid Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe-critical) admitted to 1 center in China. N=17
Some concerns
Details
Full description
ChiCTR2000029496
Zheng F, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public Novaferon Lopinavir + Ritonavir RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to a single center in China. N=89
Some concerns
Details
Full description
Forest plots
Novaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir Lopinavir + Ritonavir
Novaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir Novaferon
ChiCTR2000029544
Lou Y, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public Favipiravir Baloxavir marboxil RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (unclear severity) admitted to a single center in China. N=30
Some concerns
Details
Full description
Forest plots
Baloxavir marboxil Lopinavir + Ritonavir or Darunavir/Cobicistat + Umifenovir + Interferon-a
Favipiravir Lopinavir + Ritonavir or Darunavir/Cobicistat + Umifenovir + Interferon-a
NCT04292899
Goldman JD, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
Private Remdesivir Remdesivir RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate to critical) admitted to 55 centers across 5 countries. N=402
Some concerns
Details
Full description

We acknowledge that we may have been unable to extract some information from pre-prints, as they represent preliminary forms of scientific communication. We perform daily database searches to identify if an included pre-print has been published in a scientific journal, and we will use the published paper to update our extraction.

We recognize that our process might not be perfect. Please contact us if you identify an error.