Pharmacologic treatments for covid-19 patients

We are searching the literature every day and collecting data for each RCT of COVID-19 treatment identified.

Below you can access all the treatment comparisons where data are available as well as a table with the general characteristics of each trial. For each treatment comparison, you can access the forest plots for all the outcomes of interest available as well as the Summary of Findings (SoF) table.

We are updating the evidence synthesis every Friday.

Treatment comparisons

We report below the forest plots for the main treatment comparisons.

Please choose a Treatment Comparison:

  • a-Lipoic acid vs Placebo
  • Aprepitant+Dexamethasone vs Dexamethasone
  • Auxora vs Standard care
  • Azvudine vs Standard care
  • Baloxavir marboxil vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir or Darunavir/Cobicistat + Umifenovir + Interferon-a
  • Bromhexine hydrochloride vs Standard care new
  • C1 Esterase/Kallikrein Inhibitor vs Standard care
  • Calcifediol vs Standard care new
  • Chloroquine vs Standard Care
  • Colchicine vs Standard care/Placebo update
  • Convalescent plasma vs Standard care update
  • Corticosteroids vs Standard Care/Placebo update
  • Darunavir/cobicistat vs Standard Care
  • Favipiravir vs Umifenovir
  • Favipiravir vs Baloxavir marboxil
  • Favipiravir vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir or Darunavir/Cobicistat + Umifenovir + Interferon-a
  • Favipiravir vs Standard care
  • Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell infusion vs Standard care
  • Hydroxychloroquine vs Standard Care/Placebo
  • Hydroxychloroquine vs Chloroquine
  • Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin vs Standard Care
  • Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin vs Hydroxychloroquine update
  • Icatibant vs Standard care
  • Icatibant vs C1 Esterase/Kallikrein Inhibitor
  • IFX-1 vs Standard care
  • Interferon α-2b + Interferon gamma vs Interferon α-2b
  • Interferon β-1a vs Standard care update
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulin vs Standard care/Placebo
  • Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Standard care
  • Lopinavir + Ritonavir + Ribavirin + Interferon-b-1b vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir
  • Lopinavir+Ritonavir+Interferon alpha vs Ribavirin+Interferon alpha
  • Novaferon vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir
  • Novaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir
  • Novaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Novaferon
  • Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor vs Standard care new
  • Remdesivir 10 days vs Standard Care/Placebo
  • Remdesivir 5 days vs Remdesivir 10 days
  • Remdesivir 5 days vs Standard care
  • Ribavirin+Lopinavir+Ritonavir+Interferon alpha vs Ribavirin+Interferon alpha
  • Ribavirin+Lopinavir+Ritonavir+Interferon alpha vs Lopinavir+Ritonavir+Interferon alpha
  • Ruxolitinib vs Vitamin C
  • Sofosbuvir + Daclatasvir + Ribavirin vs Standard care
  • Sofosbuvir/daclatasvir vs Standard care
  • Telmisartan vs Standard care
  • Tocilizumab vs Standard care/Placebo new
  • Umifenovir vs Standard care
  • Umifenovir vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir
  • Vitamin C vs Placebo

Reboot the table and see all comparisons

Reboot the table and see all comparisons

Network diagrams

Networks

The nodes represent the interventions being compared in the available RCTs. Two interventions are connected with a line whenever there is at least one RCT comparing them directly. The size of the nodes is proportional to the total number of participants randomised in each intervention and the thickness of the line is proportional to the precision (i.e. the inverse of the variance) of the relative effect for the respective direct comparison. The color of the lines represents the overall risk of bias of the direct comparisons for the outcome that corresponds to each network diagram. When two or more RCTs compare the same pair of interventions, then the risk of bias of that comparison is calculated as the inverse variance weighted average of the study-specific overall risk of bias judgements.

Description of primary studies

In this table, we report the main characteristics of the RCTs identified.

The link in the column Overall risk of bias will give you access to a complete description of the assessment of each risk of bias domain with supports for judgement. The overall risk of bias reported in the table corresponds to the highest risk of bias for the outcomes assessed for the systematic review. The link in the column Full description will give you access to the general characteristics of the study.

The components included in the standard of care vary among the included studies. For example, the standard of care may include antiviral treatments in some studies, but not in others. We are in the process of contacting the study authors to obtain more information.

We acknowledge that we may have been unable to extract some information from pre-prints, as they represent preliminary forms of scientific communication.

Trial Funding Comparisons Design Participants Sample size Overall risk
of bias
Full description
Treatment 1 Treatment 2
IRCT20200328046886N1
Abbaspour Kasgari H, J Antimicrob Chemother , 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Sofosbuvir/daclatasvir + Ribavirin Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to a single center in Iran. N=48
Some concerns
Details

Full description

new
CTRI/2020/04/024775
Agarwal A, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Public/non profit Convalescent plasma Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild to severe) admitted to 39 centers in India. N=464
High
Details

Full description

NCT02735707
Angus DC, JAMA, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Hydrocortisone Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (severe-critical) admitted to 121 centers in 8 countries N=251
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04345523
Avendaño-Solà C, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
Public/non profit Convalescent plasma Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to 14 centers in Spain N=81
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04280705
Beigel JH, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Remdesivir Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate to critical) admitted to 60 sites in 10 countries. N=1063
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04323527
Borba MGS, Jama Netw Open, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Chloroquine - 600mg Chloroquine - 450mg RCT Patients with severe and critical respiratory syndrome secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection treated in a single center in Brazil. N=81
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Forest plots
ChiCTR2000029308
Cao B, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
Mixed Lopinavir + Ritonavir Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe) admitted to a single center in China. N=199
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR-OPN-200002958
Cao Y, J Allergy Clin Immun, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Ruxolitinib Vitamin C RCT Patients with COVID-19 (severe) admitted to 3 centers in China. N=43
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04322123
Cavalcanti AB, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to 55 centers in Brazil N=667
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin Standard care
Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin Hydroxychloroquine
ChiCTR2000030254
Chen C, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Favipiravir Umifenovir RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate and severe) admitted to 3 centers in China. N=240
High
Details

Full description

NCT04384380
Chen CP , medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to 11 centers in Taiwan N=33
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04261517
Chen J, J Zhejiang Univ, 2020
Full text
Public/non profit Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Treatment-naive patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to a single center in China. N=30
High
Details

Full description

NCT04252274
Chen J, Open Forum Infect Dis, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Darunavir/cobicistat Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to a single center in China N=30
High
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000030054
Chen L, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public Hydroxychloroquine Chloroquine RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild, moderate) admitted to a single center in China N=67
High
Details

Full description

Chloroquine Standard care
Hydroxychloroquine Standard care
ChiCTR2000029559
Chen Z, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
Public/non profit Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to a single center in China. N=62
Some concerns
Details

Full description

new
2020-09-17
Cheng LL , JAMA, 2020
Full text
Mixed Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to three centers in China N=200
Some concerns
Details

Full description

EudraCT number: 2020-001934-37
Corral-Gudino L, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
No specific funding Methylprednisolone Standard care RCT “Patients with COVID-19 (severe) admitted to a 5 centers in Spain” N=64
High
Details

Full description

IRCT20100228003449N28
Davoudi-Monfared E, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Private Interferon β-1a Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (moderate to critical) admitted to 1 center in Iran. N=92
High
Details

Full description

NCT04326790
Deftereos SG, JAMA, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Private Colchicine Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to 16 centers in Greece. N=110
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT02517489
Dequin P-F, JAMA, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Hydrocortisone Placebo RCT Patients with COVID-19 (severe-critical) admitted to 9 centers in France N=149
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04355936
Duarte M, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Telmisartan Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (unclear severity) admitted to 2 centers in Argentina N=82
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04366908
Entrenas Castillo M, J Steroid Biochem Mo, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Calcifediol Standard care RCT Patients with confimed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to a single center in Spain N=76
Some concerns
Details

Full description

RPCEC00000307
Esquivel-Moynelo I, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit IFN alpha2b+IFN gamma Interferon alpha2b RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (ambulatory, mild) admitted to a single center in Cuba N=79
High
Details

Full description

NCT04321278
Furtado RHM, Lancet, 2020
Full text
Mixed Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin Hydroxychloroquine RCT Patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-critical) admitted to 57 centers in Brazil N=447
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04342182
Gharbharan A, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Convalescent plasma Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (moderate-critical) admitted to 14 centers in the Netherlands N=86
High
Details

Full description

NCT04292899
Goldman JD, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
Private Remdesivir 5 Days Remdesivir 10 Days RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate to critical) admitted to 55 centers across 5 countries. N=402
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Forest plots
NCT04381936
Horby P, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to 176 centers in the UK N=4716
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04381936
Horby P, N Engl J Med, 2020 (RECOVERY Trial)
Full text
and Full text
Commentary
Public Dexamethasone Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed and unconfirmed COVID-19 (moderate to critical) admitted to 176 hospitals in the UK N=6425
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Forest plot
(sub group)
ChiCTR2000029387
Huang YQ, Front Pharmacol, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Ribavirin+Lopinavir+Ritonavir+Interferon alpha Ribavarin+Interferon alpha RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to a single center in China N=101
High
Details

Full description

Lopinavir+Ritonavir+Interferon alpha Ribavarin+Interferon alpha
Ribavirin+Lopinavir+Ritonavir+Interferon alpha Lopinavir+Ritonavir+Interferon alpha
NCT04276688
Hung IF-N, Lancet, 2020
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
Not reported/unclear Lopinavir + Ritonavir + Ribavirin + Interferon-b-1b Lopinavir + Ritonavir RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (unclear severity) admitted to six centers in Hong-Kong. N=127
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04434248
Ivashchenko AA, Clin Infect Dis, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Favipiravir 1800/800mg Favipiravir 1600/600mg RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to 6 centers in Russia N=60
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Forest plots
Favipiravir 1600/600mg Standard care
Favipiravir 1800/800mg Standard care
ChiCTR2000029757
Li L, JAMA, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Public/non profit Convalescent plasma Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (severe to critical) admitted to 7 centers in China. N=103
Some concerns
Details

Full description

new
NCT04273763
Li T, Clin Transl Sci , 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Bromhexine hydrochloride Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to a single center in China N=18
Some concerns
Details

Full description

new
RBR-8jyhxh
Lopes MIF, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Colchicine Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-critical) admitted to a single center in Brazil N=38
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000029544
Lou Y, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Favipiravir Baloxavir marboxil RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (unclear severity) admitted to a single center in China. N=30
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Baloxavir marboxil Lopinavir + Ritonavir or Darunavir/Cobicistat + Umifenovir + Interferon-a
Favipiravir Lopinavir + Ritonavir or Darunavir/Cobicistat + Umifenovir + Interferon-a
RBR-5s2mqg
Mansour E, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Icatibant Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (severe) admitted to a single center in Brazil N=30
Some concerns
Details

Full description

C1 Esterase/Kallikrein Inhibitor Standard care
Icatibant C1 Esterase/Kallikrein Inhibitor
NCT04468646
Mehboob R, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
No specific funding Aprepitant+Dexamethasone Dexamethasone RCT Patients with COVID-19 (moderate-critical) admitted to a single center in Pakistan N=18
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04345614
Miller J, Crit Care, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Private Auxora Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to 3 centers in USA N=26
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04304053
Mitjà O, Clin Infect Dis, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild) in an ambulatory setting in Spain N=353
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04343729
Prado Jeronimo CM, Clin Infect Dis, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Methylprednisolone Placebo RCT Patients with COVID-19 (moderate-critical) admitted to a single center in Brazil N=416
High
Details

Full description

IRCT20100228003449N2
Rahmani H, Int Immunopharmacol, 2020
Full text
Commentary
No specific funding Interferon β-1b Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to a single center in Iran N=80
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000029853
Ren Z, Adv Sci, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Azvudine Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to a single center in China N=20
Some concerns
Details

Full description

new
NCT04320615
Rosas I, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Mixed Tocilizumab Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to multiple centers across 9 countries N=452
Some concerns
Details

Full description

IRCT20200128046294N2
Sadeghi A, J Antimicrob Chemother, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Sofosbuvir/daclatasvir Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to 4 centers in Iran N=70
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04411667
Sakoulas G, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Private Intravenous Immunoglobulin Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to 2 centers in USA. N=34
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000031494
Shu L, Stem Cell Res Ther, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell infusion Standard care RCT “Patients with COVID-19 (mild to severe) admitted to a single center China” N=41
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04308668
Skipper CP, Ann Intern Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Private Hydroxychloroquine Placebo RCT Symptomatic, non-hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 or probable COVID-19 with high-risk exposure within 4 days of symptom onset. N=491
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04292730
Spinner CD, JAMA, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Private Remdesivir 5 days Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-severe) admitted to 105 centers in the USA, Europe and Asia N=596
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Remdesivir 10 days Standard care
Remdesivir 5 days Remdesivir 10 days
ChiCTR2000029868
Tang W, BMJ, 2020
Full text
Commentary
and Commentary
Mixed Hydroxychloroquine Standard care RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild, moderate and severe) admitted to 16 centers in China N=150
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04327401
Tomazini, JAMA, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Dexamethasone Standard care RCT Patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (critical) admitted to 41 centers in Brazil N=299
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04333420
Vlaar A P J, SSRN, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Private IFX-1  Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-critical) admitted to three centers in the Netherlands N=30
Some concerns
Details

Full description

new
ChiCTR2000029765
Wang D, Lancet (pre-print), 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Tocilizumab Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to 6 centers in China N=65
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04257656
Wang Y, Lancet, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed Remdesivir Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe) admitted to ten centers in China. N=237
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04252885
Yueping L, CellPress, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Lopinavir + Ritonavir Standard care RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to a single center in China. N=86
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Umifenovir Lopinavir + Ritonavir
Umifenovir Standard care
NCT04264533
Zhang J, Research Square, 2020
Full text
Public/non profit Vitamin C Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe-critical) admitted to 3 centers in China N=56
High
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000029496
Zheng F, Int J Infect Dis, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit Novaferon Lopinavir + Ritonavir RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to a single center in China. N=89
Some concerns
Details

Full description

Novaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir Lopinavir + Ritonavir
Novaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir Novaferon
ChiCTR2000029851
Zhong M, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Private a-Lipoic acid Placebo RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (severe-critical) admitted to 1 center in China. N=17
Some concerns
Details

Full description