Pharmacologic treatments for covid-19 patients

Hydroxychloroquine vs Standard Care/Placebo

This comparison will not be updated. Last search date 28 Feb, 2022.

The analysis below do not include the results from 14 unpublished studies reported by Axfors et al 2021 Mortality outcomes with hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in COVID-19 from an international collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials .


Outpatients

Forest plots
(last update: 2022-04-29)

Summary of findings
(last update: 2022-03-11)

Hospitalized patients

Forest plots
(last update: 2022-04-29)

Funnel plots
(last update: 2022-04-03)

Summary of findings
(last update: 2022-05-02)

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Permanent URL for this comparison: https://covid-nma.com/living_data/index.php?comparison=3

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Trial Funding Comparisons Design Participants Sample size Overall risk
of bias
Highest assessment
Full description
Treatment 1 Treatment 2
N/A
Ahmad B, Clin Med Res, 2021
Full text
Commentary
No specific funding

Hydroxychloroquine

Chloroquine

Hydroxychloroquine

Placebo

Placebo

Chloroquine

RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to a single center in Pakistan. N=150
Some concerns
Details

Full description

CTRI/2020/04/024479
Gupta S, Med J Armed Forces I, 2021
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit

Hydroxychloroquine

Standard care

RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate to critical) admitted to a single center in India. N=110 N/A

Full description

NCT02735707
Arabi Y, Intensive Care Med, 2021
Full text
Commentary
Mixed

Lopinavir-Ritonavir

Hydroxychloroquine

HCQ+LPV/r

Lopinavir-Ritonavir

Lopinavir-Ritonavir

Hydroxychloroquine

Standard care

Standard care

Standard care

Hydroxychloroquine

HCQ+LPV/r

HCQ+LPV/r

RCT Patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (critical) admitted to a multiple centers in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, UK, and USA N=726
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04329611
Schwartz I, CMAJ Open, 2021
Full text
Commentary
Mixed

Hydroxychloroquine

Placebo

RCT Outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild, symptomatic) treated in the community by the public health system in Canada N=148
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04860284
HONEST
Byakika-Kibwika P, BMC Infect Dis, 2021
Full text
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Commentary
Public/non profit

Hydroxychloroquine

Standard care

RCT Outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (asymptomatic and symptomatic, mild) isolated at a single center in Uganda. N=105
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04403100
TOGETHER
Reis G, JAMA, 2021
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Public/non profit

Lopinavir-Ritonavir

Hydroxychloroquine

Lopinavir-Ritonavir

Placebo

Placebo

Hydroxychloroquine

RCT Outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild) treated at local public health facilities in 10 cities in Brazil N=685
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04491994
Kamran SM, Cureus, 2021
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
No specific funding

Hydroxychloroquine

Standard care

RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild) admitted to a single center in Pakistan N=540
High
Details

Full description

NCT04321616
NOR-SOLIDARITY
Barratt-Due A, Ann Intern Med, 2021
Full text
Full text
Commentary
Mixed

Hydroxychloroquine

Standard care

RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (unclear severity) admitted to 23 centers in Norway N=108
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04329923
PATCH
Amaravadi R, medRxiv, 2021
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Mixed

Hydroxychloroquine

Placebo

RCT Outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (symptomatic, mild ) treated by a single center in USA N=34
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04391127
Beltran-Gonzalez J, medRxiv, 2021
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Public/non profit

Hydroxychloroquine

Ivermectin

Hydroxychloroquine

Placebo

Placebo

Ivermectin

RCT Patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (moderate/severe) admitted to a single center in Mexico N=106
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04315896
Hernandez-Cardenas C, PloS One, 2021
Full text
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Commentary
Mixed

Hydroxychloroquine

Placebo

RCT Patients with RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 (severe-critical) admitted to 3 centers in Mexico N=214
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04315948
DisCoVeRy
Ader F, medRxiv, 2022
Full text
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Commentary
Mixed

Lopinavir-Ritonavir

LPV/r+IFN beta-1a

Hydroxychloroquine

Lopinavir-Ritonavir

Lopinavir-Ritonavir

LPV/r+IFN beta-1a

Standard care

Standard care

Standard care

LPV/r+IFN beta-1a

Hydroxychloroquine

Hydroxychloroquine

RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to 32 centers in France and Luxembourg. N=603
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04349592
Q-PROTECT
Omrani A, EClinicalMedicine, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit

HCQ+AZM

Hydroxychloroquine

HCQ+AZM

Placebo

Placebo

Hydroxychloroquine

RCT Outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild) treated by 2 centers in Qatar N=456
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04332991
ORCHID
Self W, JAMA, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Mixed

Hydroxychloroquine

Placebo

RCT Patients with COVID-19 confirmed (mild-critical) admitted to 34 centers in the USA N=479
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04325893
Dubee V, Clin Microbiol Infec, 2021
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Public/non profit

Hydroxychloroquine

Placebo

RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to 34 centers in France and Monaco. N=250
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04353336
Abd-Elsalam S, Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit

Hydroxychloroquine

Standard care

RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-severe) admitted to three university hospitals in Egypt. N=194
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ISRCTN83971151; NCT04315948
SOLIDARITY (HCQ)
Pan H, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Full text
Commentary
Mixed

Hydroxychloroquine

Standard care

RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to 405 centers in 30 countries N=1863
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04369742
TEACH
Ulrich RJ, Open Forum Infect Di, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit

Hydroxychloroquine

Placebo

RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-severe) admitted to 5 centers in USA N=128
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04316377
NO COVID-19
Lyngbakken MN, Nature, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit

Hydroxychloroquine

Standard care

RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-severe) admitted to a single center in Norway N=53
High
Details

Full description

NCT04384380
Chen CP, Plos one, 2020
Full text
Full text
Commentary
Mixed

Hydroxychloroquine

Standard care

RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to 11 centers in Taiwan N=33
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04322123
Cavalcanti AB, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed

HCQ+AZM

Hydroxychloroquine

Hydroxychloroquine

Standard care

RCT Patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (mild-moderate) admitted to 55 centers in Brazil N=667
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04304053
Mitja O, Clin Infect Dis, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed

Hydroxychloroquine

Standard care

RCT Outpatients with COVID-19 (mild) in an ambulatory setting in Spain N=353
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04308668
Skipper CP, Ann Intern Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Private

Hydroxychloroquine

Placebo

RCT Outpatients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (symptomatic, mild) with high-risk exposure within 4 days of symptom onset N=491
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04381936
RECOVERY (HCQ)
Horby P, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Mixed

Hydroxychloroquine

Standard care

RCT Patients with COVID-19 (mild-critical) admitted to 176 centers in the UK N=4716
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000030054
Chen L, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Public/non profit

Hydroxychloroquine

Chloroquine

Hydroxychloroquine

Standard care

Standard care

Chloroquine

RCT Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate) admitted to a single center in China N=67
High
Details

Full description