Criteria for considering studies for this review

Types of studies

We include Rnadomized Controlled trials (RCTs).

No restriction on language

Types of participants

  • Ambulatory COVID-19 outpatients
  • Hospitalized COVID-19 patients
  • Children or adults with no restriction in age
  • Types of interventions

    Any pharmacological intervention for treating COVID-19 (anti-infectious agents, specific and non-specific immunomodulators,mononoclonal antibidies supportive treatments for patients admitted to the ICU, general treatments for viral infection)

    List of outcomes

    On the 1st of February 2021, the protocol of the review on pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments was amended to consider only the following outcomes:

    Critical outcomes:
  • Clinical improvement Day (D) 28 / D60 or more) defined as a hospital discharge or improvement on the scale used by trialists to evaluate clinical progression and recovery.
  • WHO Clinical Progression Score level 7 or above (i.e., Mechanical ventilation +/- additional organ support (ECMO, vasopressors or dialysis) OR death (D28 / D60 or more)
  • All-cause mortality (D28 / D60 or more)
  • Viral negative conversion (D7)
  • Incidence of any adverse events
  • Incidence of serious adverse events (SAEs)

    Important outcomes:

  • Time to clinical improvement
  • Time to WHO Clinical Progression Score level 7 or above
  • Time to death
  • Time to viral negative conversion

    The nodes represent the interventions being compared in the available RCTs. Two interventions are connected with a line whenever there is at least one RCT comparing them directly. The size of the nodes is proportional to the total number of participants randomised in each intervention and the thickness of the line is proportional to the precision (i.e. the inverse of the variance) of the relative effect for the respective direct comparison. The color of the lines represents the overall risk of bias of the direct comparisons for the outcome that corresponds to each network diagram. When two or more RCTs compare the same pair of interventions, then the risk of bias of that comparison is calculated as the inverse variance weighted average of the study-specific overall risk of bias judgements.