Publication Baden LR, N Engl J Med, 2020
Dates: 7/27/2020 to 10/22/2020
Funding: Public/nonprofit (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID / NIH), Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA / U.S. Department of Health and Human Services), Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations)
Multicenter / United States |
Follow-up duration (days): 92 median
| 100 mcg mRNA-1273 (n=15181) Placebo (n = 15170)|
|Inclusion criteria||Adults, ≥ 18 years of age at time of consent, who are at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, defined as adults whose locations or circumstances put them at appreciable risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 ; informed consent ; Able to comply with study procedures based on the assessment of the Investigator ; Female participants of nonchildbearing potential may be enrolled in the study ; Female participants of childbearing potential may be enrolled in the study if the participant fulfills all the following criteria - negative pregnancy test at Screening and on the day of the first dose (Day 1) ; practiced adequate contraception or has abstained from all activities that could result in pregnancy for at least 28 days prior to the first dose (Day 1) ;agreed to continue adequate contraception through 3 months following the second dose (Day 29) ; not currently breastfeeding ; Healthy adults or adults with pre-existing medical conditions who are in stable condition. A stable medical condition is defined as disease not requiring significant change in therapy or hospitalization for worsening disease during the 3 months before enrollment.|
|Exclusion criteria||Acutely ill or febrile 72 hours prior to or at Screening ; pregnant or breastfeeding ; Known history of SARS-CoV-2 infection ; Prior administration of an investigational coronavirus (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV) vaccine or current/planned simultaneous participation in another interventional study to prevent or treat COVID-19 ; Demonstrated inability to comply with the study procedures ; immediate family member or household member of this studys personnel ; Known or suspected allergy or history of anaphylaxis, urticaria, or other significant adverse reaction to the vaccine or its excipients ; Bleeding disorder considered a contraindication to intramuscular injection or phlebotomy ; Has received or plans to receive a non-study vaccine within 28 days prior to or after any dose of IP (except for seasonal influenza vaccine) ; Has participated in an interventional clinical study within 28 days prior to the day of enrollment ; Immunosuppressive or immunodeficient state, asplenia, recurrent severe infections (HIV- positive participants with CD4 count ≥350 cells/mm3 and an undetectable HIV viral load within the past year [low level variations from 50-500 viral copies which do not lead to changes in antiretroviral therapy [ART] are permitted]) ; Has received systemic immunosuppressants or immune-modifying drugs for >14 days in total within 6 months prior to Screening (for corticosteroids ≥ 20 mg/day of prednisone equivalent) ; Has received systemic immunoglobulins or blood products within 3 months prior to the day of screening ; Has donated ≥ 450 mL of blood products within 28 days prior to Screening.|
|Characteristics of participants|
Type of participants: Healthy volunteers
Pregnant women: 0
Mean age : 51.3
|Description of participants|
Healthy adults with no known history of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 99 centers in the US
|In the register|
1. Number of Participants with a First Occurrence of COVID-19 Starting 14 Days after Second Dose of mRNA-1273 [ Time Frame: Day 29 (second dose) up to Day 759 (2 years after second dose) ];
2. Number of Participants with Adverse Events (AEs) or Medically Attended AEs (MAAEs) Leading to Withdrawal [ Time Frame: Up to Day 759 (2 years after second dose) ];
3. Number of Participants with Solicited Local and Systemic Adverse Reactions (ARs) [ Time Frame: Up to Day 8 (7 days after first dose) and up to Day 36 (7 days after second dose) ];
4. Number of Participants with Unsolicited AEs [ Time Frame: Up to Day 57 (28 days after each dose) ]
|In the report|
Efficacy of the vaccine to prevent protocol-defined COVID-19 occurring at least 14 days after the second dose in participants with negative SARS-CoV-2 status at baseline
Yes. In English
|Risk of bias
The overall risk of bias reported in the table corresponds to the highest risk of bias for the outcomes assessed for the systematic review
In addition to the published report, the FDA and sponsor briefing documents, the trial registry, protocol, supplementary appendices and sponsor media statement and trial website were used in data extraction. |
Mortality in the FDA and sponsor briefing documents vs in the published article were not the same. The publication reported on the fatal unsolicited adverse events 28 days after any injection while the FDA and sponsor briefing documents reported mortality that resulted from serious adverse events, up to December 3rd, 2020. Furthermore, we now report data for withdrawal from the study due to adverse events taken from unsolicited adverse events 28 days after any vaccination in the overall safety set. We are requesting information (particular of the denominators) from the authors concerning similar data presented in Table 16 of the sponsor document.
There were no substantive differences between the publication or FDA/sponsor briefing documents and the trial registry and protocol in population, procedures and interventions. The outcomes and timepoints reported were appropriate for an interim analysis of safety and efficacy of a large trial with follow up planned to continue up to two years.
Quote: "The case-driven study design required 151 COVID-19 cases to trigger the final scheduled efficacy analysis. Two interim analysis timepoints were pre-specified; the first upon accrual of 53 cases and the second upon accrual of 106 cases."
"The initial EUA request was based on data from the pre-specified interim analysis (November 11, 2020 data cutoff) with a median follow-up duration of 7 weeks after dose 2; this interim analysis data is the primary basis of this EUA review and conclusions. Data and analyses from a November 25, 2020 data cut with a median duration of at least 2 months follow-up after completion of the 2-dose primary vaccination series was submitted as an amendment to the EUA request on December 7, 2020. The FDA has not independently verified the complete safety data from the primary analysis, aside from all new deaths (including those reported through December 3, 2020) and SAEs."
Quote: "To enhance the diversity of the trial population in accordance with Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance, site-selection and enrollment processes were adjusted to increase the number of persons from racial and ethnic minorities in the trial, in addition to the persons at risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection in the local population. The upper limit for stratification of enrolled participants considered to be “at risk for severe illness” at screening was increased from 40% to 50%”.