COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness
(Randomized evidence)

Methods

Protocol

Analyses are updated every two weeks

meta-COVID

Perform your own analysis using COVID-NMA data, create and download your forest plots by clicking below:

go to metacovid

Vaccine types

Vaccine efficacy and safety for vaccine vs placebo / no vaccine (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy and safety for vaccine vs vaccine (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy and safety against variants of concern (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of heterologous vs homologous vaccination (tables)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of booster vs no booster (tables)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of booster VS booster (tables)

Trials reports under extraction

In addition to the below included trials, we have included and presently extracting 24 new vaccine randomized trials

Description of primary studies

In this table, we report the main characteristics of the COVID-19 vaccine candidates from RCTs identified, in addition to the overall risk of bias assessment.

As of January 2022, we will extract and present results of early phase trials only when the dose has been selected. Results from phase 1-2 studies are included in forest plots for the chosen vaccine dose and schedule only.

Search studies

Search by Vaccine name Author Registration number
Trial Type Comparisons Design Participants Sample size Overall risk
of bias
Highest assessment
Full description
Intervention 1 Intervention 2
NCT04400838 ; ISRCTN
University of Oxford/AstraZeneca
Ramasamy MN, Lancet, 2020

Full text
Commentary
(20)32481-8/fulltext ; Commentary
; Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Non replicating viral vector ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine - 2·2 × 10¹? vp x 2 doses on day 0/28

Non replicating viral vector ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine - 2·2 × 10¹? vp x 2 doses on day 0/28

RCT
Phase 2/3
Healthy adults in two centres in the UK N=560 N/A

Full description

NCT04651790
Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd
Abarca K, medRxiv, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac

Coronavac D0/28

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults including health care workers with no history of confirmed symptomatic SARS CoV-2 infection at eight centres in Chile N=2302
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04510207, ChiCTR2000034780
Sinopharm-Wuhan
Al Kaabi N, JAMA, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

WIBP-CorV

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults free of known COVID-19 or HIV infection at 3 centres in United Arab Emirates and Bahrain N=26941
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05033847
National Vaccine and Serum Institute, China; Sinopharm + China National Biotec Group Co + Beijing Institute of Biological Products
Al Kaabi N, Sig Transduct Target, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Heterologous booster

Boost NVSI-06-07 after prime vaccination BBIBP-CorV

Boost NVSI-06-07 (Interval 4-6 m)after prime vaccination BBIBP-CorV

Boost NVSI-06-07 (Interval >6m) after prime vaccination BBIBP-CorV

Boost BBIBP-CorV after prime vaccination BBIBP-CorV

Boost BBIBP-CorV (Interval 4-6 m) after prime vaccination BBIBP-CorV

Boost BBIBP-CorV (Interval >6m) after prime vaccination BBIBP-CorV

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection who had previously received a primary series (two doses) of BBIBP-CorV at a single center in United Arab Emirates N=1800
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04510207, ChiCTR2000034780
Sinopharm-Beijing
Al Kaabi N, JAMA, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

BBIBP-CorV

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults free of known COVID-19 or HIV infection at 3 centres in United Arab Emirates and Bahrain N=26941
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04649151
ModernaTX
Ali K, N Engl J Med, 2021

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

mRNA-1273

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2-3
Healthy adolescents in 26 centers in the USA N=3732
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04568031
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford
Asano M, Int J Infect Dis, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

ChAdOx1

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1-2
Adults with or without mild, well-controlled co-morbidities seronegative and PCR negative to SARS-CoV-2 at 5 centres in Japan N=256
Low
Details

Full description

EudraCT 2021-002348-57
Pfizer-BioNTech; Moderna; Oxford-AstraZeneca
Bonelli M, Ann Rheum Dis , 2022

Full text
Commentary
Heterologous booster

Boost ChAdOx1/prime vaccination BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273

Boost BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273/prime vaccination BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273

RCT
2
Adults under current rituximab therapy who did not develop humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 after their standard vaccination with Biontech/Pfizer or Moderna in a single center in Austria N=60
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04860739, EudraCT2021-001978-37
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Borobia A M, Lancet, 2021

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2 30 mcg 8-12 weeks after 1 dose ChAdOx1-S

No second vaccine dose

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy, or clinically stable, adults (aged ≥18 and ≤60) that were SARS-COV-2 infection free and who had received a prime ChAdOx1-S vaccination between 8 and 12 weeks before the screening visit in 5 centers in Spain. N=676
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05289037
Moderna + National Institute of Allergy and Infections Diseases (NIAID); ModernaTX
Branche A, medRxiv, 2022
New

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

2ndboost mRNA-1273Omicron + mRNA-1273Beta

2ndboost mRNA-1273Omicron + mRNA-1273 Delta

2ndboost mRNA-1273Omicron + mRNA-1273

2ndboost mRNA-1273 Omicron

2ndboost mRNA-1273

RCT
Phase 2
Adults with completed primary and booster COVID-19 vaccine series, either homologous or heterologous, and in stable health at 22 centers in USA. N=602
Some concerns
Details

Full description