COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness
(Randomized evidence)

Methods

Protocol

Analyses are updated every two weeks

On December 7, 2022, we published results of the systematic review "Efficacy and safety of COVID‐19 vaccines" which included 41 preprints and published trials of 12 different COVID-19 that were published before 5 November 2021.

meta-COVID

Perform your own analysis using COVID-NMA data, create and download your forest plots by clicking below:

go to metacovid

Vaccine types

Vaccine efficacy and safety for vaccine vs placebo / no vaccine (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy and safety for vaccine vs vaccine (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy and safety against variants of concern (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of heterologous vs homologous vaccination (tables)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of booster vs no booster (tables)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of booster VS booster (tables)

Trials reports under extraction

In addition to the below included trials, we have included and presently extracting 22 new vaccine randomized trials

Description of primary studies

In this table, we report the main characteristics of the COVID-19 vaccine candidates from RCTs identified, in addition to the overall risk of bias assessment.

As of January 2022, we will extract and present results of early phase trials only when the dose has been selected. Results from phase 1-2 studies are included in forest plots for the chosen vaccine dose and schedule only.

Search studies

Search by Vaccine name Author Registration number
Trial Type Comparisons Design Participants Sample size Overall risk
of bias
Highest assessment
Full description
Intervention 1 Intervention 2
NCT 05175625; IRCT20150303021315N26
Vaxine Pty Ltd./CinnaGen Co.
Tabarsi P, Immunology, 2022
New

Full text
Commentary
Heterologous booster

Booster SpikoGen

Placebo

RCT
Phase 3
Adults including elderly and stable co-morbidities in a single centre in Iran. N=300
Low
Details

Full description

INA-GO0HLGB
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford;Pfizer/BioNTech + Fosun Pharma; Sinovac, Ltd
Fadlyana E, Lancet Infect Dis, 2023
New

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

CoronaVac + boost BNT162b2

CoronaVac + boost BNT162b2

CoronaVac = booster BNT162b2 (half dose)

Coronavac + boost ChAdOx1 (half dose)

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

CoronaVac + boost BNT162b2

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

RCT
*
Healthy adults without a history of laboratory confirmed COVID-19 within one month prior recruitment in 5 centres in Indonesia N=960
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05293548
National Vaccine and Serum Institute, China, Beijing Zhong Sheng Heng Pharmaceutical Technology, Lanzhou Institute of Biological Products; Sinopharm-Beijing
Al Kaabi N, Signal Transduct. Ther., 2023
New

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

BBIBP-CorV/Boost NVSI-06-09

BBIBP-CorV/Boost BBIBP-CorV

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults previously vaccinated with two or three doses of BBIBP-CorV at least 6 months prior to enrollment at a single center in United Arab Emirates N=516
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05054621
Medigen Vaccine Biologics+Dynavax+NIAID; AstraZeneca + University of Oxford
Chen C, Nat Commun, 2022
New

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Heterologous vaccination scheme

1 dose ChAdOx1 / 1 dose MVC-COV1901

ChAdOx1

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults, HIV-negative and without severe disorders, who had received their initial ChAdOx1 dose at a single center in Taiwan. N=100
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05030974
Moderna ; Pfizer/BioNTech + Fosun Pharma ; Janssen Pharmaceutical
Kho M, Lancet Infect Dis, 2022
RECOVAC
New

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Heterologous booster

mRNA vaccine/boost 2 doses mRNA-1273

mRNA vaccine/boost Ad26.COV2-S

mRNAvaccine/boost mRNA-1273

RCT
Phase 4
Adult kidney transplant recipients without seroconversion after two doses of an mRNA vaccine and no history of COVID-19 at 4 centers in the Netherlands. N=230
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04283461; NCT04785144
Moderna + National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Anderson E, SSRN, 2022
New

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Homologous booster

100 mcg of mRNA-1273 + boost 50 mcg of mRNA-1273.351

mRNA-1273 100 mcg + booster

100 mcg mRNA-1273 + boost 25 mcg mRNA- 1273.351 and 25 mcg mRNA-1273

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy adult volunteers who were SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in 3 sites in the USA N=96
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04907331; 2021-002171-19
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford; Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Bánki Z, EBioMedicine, 2022
HEVACC
New

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

1 dose ChAdOx1/ 1 dose BNT162b2

ChAdOx1

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults with no history of COVID-19 in 3 centres in Austria. N=234
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04942405
Erciyes University, Health Institutes of Turkey (TUSEB);Sinovac Research and Development
Tanriover M, Vaccines, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

TURKOVAC

CoronaVac

RCT
Phase 3
Adults including healthy and with stable co-morbidities with no history of COVID-19 in 8 centres in Türkiye. N=1290
Some concerns
Details

Full description

CTRI/2021/08/035648
AstraZeneca + University of Oxford; Bharat Biotech
Rose W, SSRN, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

ChadOx1/boostBBV152

BBV152/boostChadOx1

ChadOx1/boostChadOx1

BBV152 Booster

RCT
Phase 4
Adults that were SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in a single centre in India N=405
Low
Details

Full description

NCT05124171; EudraCT 2021-004550-33
Sanofi Pasteur + GSK; Pfizer/BioNTech + Fosun Pharma
Launay O, N Engl J Med, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Heterologous booster

BNT162b2 + boost MV B.1.351

BNT162b2 + boost MV D614

BNT162b2/boostBNT

RCT
Phase 3
Adults in good health or with stable co-morbidities with no history of COVID-19 in 11 centres in France. N=247
Some concerns
Details

Full description