COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness
(Randomized evidence)

Methods

Protocol

Analyses are updated every two weeks

meta-COVID

Perform your own analysis using COVID-NMA data, create and download your forest plots by clicking below:

go to metacovid

Vaccine types

Vaccine efficacy and safety for vaccine vs placebo / no vaccine (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy and safety for vaccine vs vaccine (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy and safety against variants of concern (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of heterologous vs homologous vaccination (tables)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of booster vs no booster (tables)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of booster VS booster (tables)

Search studies

Search by Vaccine name Author Registration number
Trial Type Comparisons Design Participants Sample size Overall risk
of bias
Highest assessment
Full description
Intervention 1 Intervention 2
NCT04649151
ModernaTX
Ali K, N Engl J Med, 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

mRNA-1273

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2-3
Healthy adolescents in 26 centers in the USA N=3732
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04860739, EudraCT2021-001978-37
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Borobia A M, Lancet, 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2 30 mcg 8-12 weeks after 1 dose ChAdOx1-S

No second vaccine dose

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy, or clinically stable, adults (aged ≥18 and ≤60) that were SARS-COV-2 infection free and who had received a prime ChAdOx1-S vaccination between 8 and 12 weeks before the screening visit in 5 centers in Spain. N=676
Some concerns
Details

Full description

RBR–9nn3scw
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford/Sinovac/Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies/Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Costa Clemens SA, Lancet, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

CoronaVac/Boost BNT162b2

CoronaVac/Boost ChAdOx1

CoronaVac/Boost AD26.COV2-S

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

RCT
Phase 4
Healthy adults with no history of confirmed covid-19 who had previously received 2 doses of CoronaVac at two centers in Brazil N=1240
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04470427
ModernaTX
El Sahly HM, N Engl J Med, 2021 ()
COVE

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

mRNA-1273 100 mcg D1/28

Placebo D1/28

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults with no known history of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 99 centers in the US N=30415
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04368728
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Frenck R, N Engl J Med, 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2 3mcg D0/21

Placebo D0/21

RCT
Phase 3
Adolescents aged 12 to 15 years with no previous Covid-19 diagnosis or SARS-CoV-2 infection in 29 centers in the USA N=2264
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04885907
ModernaTX
Hall VG, N Engl J Med, 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

mRNA-1273

Placebo

RCT
Phase 4
Solid organ transplant recipients with no previous diagnosis of COVID-19 who has previously received two doses of mRNA-1273 at a single center in Canada N=120
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04588480
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Haranaka M, Nat. Commun., 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1-2
Adults including elderly and co-morbidities with no history of COVID-19 at 2 centres in Japan N=160
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04900467; EudraCT: 2021-002174-52
Moderna;Pfizer/BioNTech
Janssen C, SSRN, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Heterologous vaccination scheme

1 dose BNT162b2/1 dose mRNA-1273

1 dose mRNA-1273 /1 dose BNT162b2

2 doses BNT162b2

2 doses mRNA-1273

RCT
Phase 2
Adults with no known or suspected history of SARS-CoV-2 infection at 17 centers in France. N=414
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04652102; EudraCT 2020-003998-22
CureVac AG
Kremsner P, Lancet Infect Dis, 2022 ()
HERALD

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

CVnCoV

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2-3
Adults with no history of COVID-19 in 47 centers in Belgium, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Argentina, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Panama and Peru N=39680
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000034825 ; NCT04523571
BioNTech RNA Pharmaceuticals
Li J, Nature Medicine, 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b1 10 mcg D0/21

BNT162b1 10 mcg D0/21

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy young adults between 18 and 55 years of age, and older adults between 65 and 85 that were SARS-COVID-2 infection-free at a single center in China. N=144
Low
Details

Full description

ISRCTN69254139, EudraCT: 2020-005085-33
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford; Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Liu X, Lancet, 2021 ()
Com-COV

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

1 dose ChAdOx1/ 1 dose BNT162b2

1 dose BNT162b2 /1 dose ChAdOx1

2 doses ChAdOx1

2 doses BNT162b2

RCT
Phase 2
Adults 50 years or older with no previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, no or well-controlled mild-moderate comorbidities and HIV-negative in 8 centers in the UK N=463
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04480957
Arcturus Therapeutics Inc.
Low J, medRxiv, 2021 (b)

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

ARCT-021 3mcg

ARCT-021 5mcg

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy HIV-negative adults at a single Center in Singapore. N=64
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04480957
Arcturus Therapeutics Inc.
Low J, medRxiv, 2021 (a)

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

ARCT-021 1mcg

ARCT-021 5mcg

ARCT-021 7.5mcg

ARCT-021 10mcg

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy HIV-negative adults at a single Center in Singapore. N=42
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04962906; NCT05027672
Gamaleya Research Institute, AstraZeneca+University of Oxford;Moderna;Sinopharm
Macchia A, Lancet Reg Health Am, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26-S

Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26-S/BBIBP-CorV

RCT
Phase 2
Adults who had received the first dose (rAd26) of the Sputnik V vaccine at least 30 days earlier and no history of SARS-CoV-2 at a single centre in Argentina N=540
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04677660
ModernaTX
Masuda T, Vaccine, 2022

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

mRNA-1273

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1-2
Healthy adults aged ≥ 20 years with no known history/risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection at 2 centers in Japan. N=200
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04611243
Sinovac/Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Mok C K P, Am. J. Respir. Crit., 2022 ()

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

CoronaVac/Boost BNT162b2

RCT
*
Adults that had received two doses of CoronaVac but had low immune response against SARS-CoV-2 at two centres in Hong Kong, China N=80
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04955626
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Moreira E D, N Engl J Med, 2022

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

Boost BNT162b2 after prime vaccination with BNT162b2

BNT162b2

RCT
Phase 3
Adults and adolescents (from age of 16 years) that had received two doses BNT162b2 in a previous trial at least 6 months previously and had no history of COVID-19 at 123 sites in Brazil, South Africa, and the USA N=10136
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ISRCTN73765130
AstraZeneca + University of Oxford; Janssen Pharmaceutical; Novovax; Moderna + NIAID; Pfizer BioNTech + Fosun Pharma; CureVac AG; Valneva, NIHR, UK
Munro A, Lancet, 2021 (d)
COV-BOOST

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2/boost BNT162b2

BNT162b2/boost VLA2001

BNT162b2/boost VLA2001 half dose

BNT162b2/boost Ad26.COV2.S

BNT162b2/Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Adults aged ≥30 years in good physical health at 18 centers in the UK. N=545
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05142319
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma; ModernaTX
Poh XY, SSRN, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

Boost mRNA-1273 after prime vaccination with BNT162b2

Boost BNT162b2 after prime vaccination with BNT162b2

RCT
3
Adults at a single center in Singapore with no previous history of COVID-19 who had received a primary series of BTN162b2 at least 6 months previously N=100
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04368728
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Polack F, N Engl J Med, 2020 ()

Full text
Commentary
; Commentary
; Commentary
; Commentary
; Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2 10mcg D1/D21

Normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride) D1/D21

RCT
Phase 2/3
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 DNA negative adults in multiple centres in Argentina, Brazil, Germany, South Africa, Turkey, and the USA N=43448
Some concerns
Details

Full description

EudraCT021-002927-39
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma/Moderna/Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies
Reindl-Schwaighofer R, JAMA, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2/homologous booster

mRNAorBNT/Ad26COVS1 booster

RCT
Phase 2
Adult kidney transplant recipients with no history of COVID-19 infection and without an antibody response 4 weeks after a 2-dose mRNA vaccine schedule at a single center in Austria. N=201
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04927936
Janssen Pharmaceutical;Moderna ;Pfizer/BionTech+Fosun Pharma
Sablerolles R, N Engl J Med, 2022 ()

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Ad26.COV2.S/m-RNA-1273

Ad26.COV2.S/Ad26.COV2.S

Ad26.COV2.S/Ad26.COV2.S

Ad26.COV2.S/BNT162b2

Ad26.COV2.S/m-RNA-1273

Ad26.COV2.S/BNT162b2

RCT
Phase 3
Healthcare workers aged 18-65 years, without severe comorbidities, and no known history of SARS-CoV-2 infection who received a single Ad26.COV2.S primary vaccination at 4 centers in the Netherlands. N=461
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ISRCTN27841311; EudraCT 2021-001275-16
Pfizer BioNTech + Fosun Pharma / Novavax / Moderna + NIAID
Stuart A, Lancet, 2021 (b)
Com-COV2

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

1 dose BNT162b2 followed by 1 dose NVX-CoV2373

1 dose BNT162b2 followed by 1 dose mRNA-1273

2 doses BNT162b2

RCT
Phase 2
Adults over 50 years previously vaccinated with one dose of BNT162b2 at 9 centres in the UK N=532
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ISRCTN27841311; EudraCT 2021-001275-16
AstraZeneca + University of Oxford / Novavax / Moderna + NIAID
Stuart A, Lancet, 2021 (a)
Com-COV2

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

1 dose ChAdOx1 followed by 1 dose NVX-CoV2373

1 dose ChAdOx1 followed by 1 dose mRNA-1273

2 doses ChAdOx1

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults over 50 years previously vaccinated with one dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in 9 centres in the UK N=540
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04368728
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Thomas S, N Engl J Med, 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2-3
Children (>=12Y yo), adolescentes and adults, with no history or SARS-CoV 2 infection at 152 sites in Argentina, Brazil, Germany, South Africa, Turkey and USA N=44165
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04368728
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Walsh E, N Engl J Med, 2020 ()

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

RNA-based COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2 - 30mcg x 2 doses on day 1/21

Normal saline placebo (0.9% sodium chloride) x 2 doses on day 1/21

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 serology/DNA negative adults in four centres in USA N=195
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04816643
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Walter E, N Engl J Med, 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2 10 mcg

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2-3
Children aged 5-11 years with or without stable co-morbidities with no history of COVID-19 in 81 centres in the USA, Spain, Finland, and Poland N=2285
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04523571 ; ChiCTR
Pfizer/BioNTech + Fosun Pharma
Zhu F, ResearchSquare, 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
; Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT126b1 10 mcg/0.5 ml Days 0,21

Saline 0.5 m l Days 0,21

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 infection-free adults aged 18-55 and 65-85 at a single center in China N=144
Low
Details

Full description