COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness
(Randomized evidence)

Methods

Protocol

Latest news:Last search date July 30, 2023. No further screening is planned after this date. Extraction is ongoing for all pending studies.

A list of studies pending extraction is available here.

meta-COVID

Perform your own analysis using COVID-NMA data for prime vaccination (last search date 14/12/2022), create and download your forest plots by clicking below:

go to metacovid

Vaccine types

COVID-19 BOOSTER DOSE VACCINATION: updated daily

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of booster vs no booster (tables)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of booster VS booster (tables)

COVID-19 PRIME VACCINATION: Last search date December 14, 2022.

Vaccine efficacy and safety for vaccine vs placebo / no vaccine (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy and safety for vaccine vs vaccine (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of heterologous vs homologous vaccination (tables)

Vaccine efficacy and safety against variants of concern (forest plots)

Search studies

Search by Vaccine name Author Registration number
Trial Type Comparisons Design Participants Sample size Overall risk
of bias
Highest assessment
Full description
Intervention 1 Intervention 2
NCT04649151
ModernaTX
Ali K, N Engl J Med, 2021

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

mRNA-1273

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2-3
Healthy adolescents in 26 centers in the USA N= 3732
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04796896
Moderna TX
Anderson E, N Engl J Med, 2022 b

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

mRNA-1273

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2-3
Children 6 to 23 months of age, including healthy and those with stable chronic diseases in 87 centres in USA (79 sites) and Canada (8 sites). N= 2355
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04796896
Moderna TX
Anderson E, N Engl J Med , 2022 a

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

mRNA-1273

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2-3
Children 2 to 5 years of age, including healthy and those with stable chronic diseases in 87 centres in USA (79 sites) and Canada (8 sites). N= 4048
Some concerns
Details

Full description

TCTR20220112002
Moderna; Pfizer
Assantachai P, J Infect Dis, 2023

Full text
Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

ChAdOx1/Boost mRNA1273-20 mcg ID

ChAdOx1/Boost BNT162b2- 10MCG ID

ChAd/Boost mRNA1273

ChadOx1/boostBNT

RCT
4
Adults 65 years of age or older in a single centre in Thailand N= 210
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04907331; 2021-002171-19
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford; Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Bánki Z, EBioMedicine, 2022
HEVACC

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

1 dose ChAdOx1/ 1 dose BNT162b2

ChAdOx1

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults with no history of COVID-19 in 3 centres in Austria. N= 234
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04955626
Pfizer/BioNTech + Fosun Pharma
Barda N, Clin. Microbiol. Infect., 2023

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2/Boost BNT162b2/Boost BNT161b2-OMI 30mcg

BNT162b2/Boost BNT162b2/Boost BNT161b2-OMI 60mcg

BNT162b2/Boost BNT162b2/Boost BNT161b2-OMI 15/15mcg

BNT162b2/Boost BNT162b2/Boost BNT161b2-OMI 30/30mcg

BNT162b2/Boost BNT162b2/Boost BNT162b2 60mcg

BNT162b2/Boost BNT162b2/Boost BNT162b2

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults, age 60 years old or more and SARS-CoV-2 infection-free, in a single center in Israel N= 123
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04860739, EudraCT2021-001978-37
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Borobia A M, Lancet, 2021

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2 30 mcg 8-12 weeks after 1 dose ChAdOx1-S

No second vaccine dose

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy, or clinically stable, adults (aged ≥18 and ≤60) that were SARS-COV-2 infection free and who had received a prime ChAdOx1-S vaccination between 8 and 12 weeks before the screening visit in 5 centers in Spain. N= 676
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05289037
Moderna + National Institute of Allergy and Infections Diseases (NIAID); ModernaTX
Branche A, medRxiv, 2022 a

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

Any COVID-19 vaccine prime and 1st boost/2nd boost mRNA-1273 Omicron + mRNA-1273 Beta

Any COVID-19 vaccine prime and 1st boost/2nd boost mRNA-1273Omicron + mRNA-1273 Delta

Any COVID-19 vaccine prime and 1st boost/2nd boost mRNA-1273 Omicron + mRNA-1273

Any COVID-19 vaccine prime and 1st boost/2nd boost mRNA-1273 Omicron

Any COVID-19 vaccine prime and 1st boost/2nd boost mRNA-1273

RCT
Phase 2
Adults with completed primary and booster COVID-19 vaccine series, either homologous or heterologous, and in stable health at 22 centers in USA. N= 602
Some concerns
Details

Full description

TCTR20211102003
Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd; Pfizer/BioNTech + Fosun Pharma; Moderna + National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); AstraZeneca + University of Oxford
Bruminhent J, Am J Transplant, 2022

Full text
Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

CoronaVac or ChAdOx1/Boost BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273

CoronaVac or ChAdOx1/Boost ChAdOx1

RCT
Phase 3
Adult kidney transplant recipients without a history of COVID-19 in a single centre in Thailand. N= 85
Some concerns
Details

Full description

RBR–9nn3scw
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford/Sinovac/Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies/Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Costa Clemens SA, Lancet, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

CoronaVac/Boost BNT162b2

CoronaVac/Boost ChAdOx1

CoronaVac/Boost AD26.COV2-S

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

RCT
Phase 4
Healthy adults with no history of confirmed covid-19 who had previously received 2 doses of CoronaVac at two centers in Brazil N= 1240
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04796896
ModernaTX
Creech CB, N Engl J Med, 2022
KidCOVE

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

mRNA-1273 (50 mcg D0/28)

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2-3
Children aged 6-11 years, healthy or with stable chronic conditions and no known recent history of COVID-19 infection, at 87 centers in Canada and USA. N= 4016
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04470427
ModernaTX
El Sahly H, N Engl J Med, 2021
COVE

Full text
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

mRNA-1273 100 mcg D1/28

Placebo D1/28

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults with no known history of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 99 centers in the US N= 30415
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05197153
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford; Moderna TX; Medigen Vaccine Biologics+Dynavax+NIAID
Estephan L, Vaccine, 2023 c

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

mRNA-1273/Boost MVC-COV1901

mRNA-1273/Boost ChAdOx1

mRNA-1273/Boost 1/2 MVC-COV1901

mRNA-1273/Boost 1/2 mRNA-1273

RCT
Phase 2
Adults who received ChAdOx1, mRNA-1273, or MVC-COV1901 as prime vaccination with no history of COVID-19 , in 4 centers in Taiwan N= 163
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05197153
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford; Moderna TX; Medigen Vaccine Biologics+Dynavax+NIAID
Estephan L, Vaccine, 2023 a

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

MVC-COV1901/Boost 1/2 MVC-COV1901

MVC-COV1901/Boost mRNA-127

MVC-COV1901/Boost ChAdOx1

MVC-COV1901/Boost MVC-COV1901

RCT
Phase 2
Adults who received ChAdOx1, mRNA-1273, or MVC-COV1901 as prime vaccination with no history of COVID-19 , in 4 centers in Taiwan N= 313
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05197153
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford; Moderna TX; Medigen Vaccine Biologics+Dynavax+NIAID
Estephan L, Vaccine, 2023 b

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

ChadOx1/boost MVC-COV1901

ChadOx1/boostmRNA-1273 (half dose)

ChadOx1/boostChadOx1

RCT
Phase 2
Adults who received ChAdOx1, mRNA-1273, or MVC-COV1901 as prime vaccination with no history of COVID-19 , in 4 centers in Taiwan N= 323
Some concerns
Details

Full description

INA-GO0HLGB
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford;Pfizer/BioNTech + Fosun Pharma; Sinovac, Ltd
Fadlyana E, Lancet Infect Dis, 2023

Full text
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

CoronaVac/Boost BNT162b2

CoronaVac/Boost BNT162b2

CoronaVac/Boost BNT162b2 (half dose)

Coronavac/Boost ChAdOx1 (half dose)

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

CoronaVac/Boost BNT162b2

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

RCT
*
Healthy adults without a history of laboratory confirmed COVID-19 within one month prior recruitment in 5 centres in Indonesia N= 960
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04368728
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Frenck R, N Engl J Med, 2021

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2 3mcg D0/21

Placebo D0/21

RCT
Phase 3
Adolescents aged 12 to 15 years with no previous Covid-19 diagnosis or SARS-CoV-2 infection in 29 centers in the USA N= 2264
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04885907
ModernaTX
Hall VG, N Engl J Med, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

mRNA-1273

Placebo

RCT
Phase 4
Solid organ transplant recipients with no previous diagnosis of COVID-19 who has previously received two doses of mRNA-1273 at a single center in Canada N= 120
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04588480
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Haranaka M, Nat. Commun., 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1-2
Adults including elderly and co-morbidities with no history of COVID-19 at 2 centres in Japan N= 160
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04649021
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Hui A-M, Lancet, 2022

Full text
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults and those with a pre-existing stable condition, at 2 centers in China. N= 960
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04900467; EudraCT: 2021-002174-52
Moderna;Pfizer/BioNTech
Janssen C, EClinicalMedicine, 2022

Full text
Full text
Commentary
Heterologous vaccination scheme

1 dose BNT162b2/1 dose mRNA-1273

1 dose mRNA-1273 /1 dose BNT162b2

2 doses BNT162b2

2 doses mRNA-1273

RCT
Phase 2
Adults with no known or suspected history of SARS-CoV-2 infection at 17 centers in France. N= 414
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05030974
Moderna ; Pfizer/BioNTech + Fosun Pharma ; Janssen Pharmaceutical
Kho M, Lancet Infect Dis, 2022
RECOVAC

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Heterologous booster

mRNA vaccine/Boost 2 doses mRNA-1273

mRNA vaccine/Boost Ad26.COV2-S

mRNAvaccine/Boost mRNA-1273

RCT
Phase 4
Adult kidney transplant recipients without seroconversion after two doses of an mRNA vaccine and no history of COVID-19 at 4 centers in the Netherlands. N= 230
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04652102; EudraCT 2020-003998-22
CureVac AG
Kremsner P, Lancet Infect Dis, 2022
HERALD

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

CVnCoV

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2-3
Adults with no history of COVID-19 in 47 centers in Belgium, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, Argentina, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Panama and Peru N= 39680
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000034825 ; NCT04523571
BioNTech RNA Pharmaceuticals
Li J, Nature Medicine, 2021

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b1 10 mcg D0/21

BNT162b1 30 mcg D0/21

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy young adults between 18 and 55 years of age, and older adults between 65 and 85 that were SARS-COVID-2 infection-free at a single center in China. N= 144
Low
Details

Full description

ISRCTN69254139, EudraCT: 2020-005085-33
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford; Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Liu X, Lancet, 2022
Com-COV

Full text
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

1 dose ChAdOx1/ 1 dose BNT162b2

1 dose BNT162b2 /1 dose ChAdOx1

2 doses ChAdOx1

2 doses BNT162b2

RCT
Phase 2
Adults 50 years or older with no previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, no or well-controlled mild-moderate comorbidities and HIV-negative in 8 centers in the UK N= 463
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04480957
Arcturus Therapeutics Inc.
Low J, medRxiv, 2021 b

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

ARCT-021 3mcg

ARCT-021 5mcg

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy HIV-negative adults at a single Center in Singapore. N= 64
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04480957
Arcturus Therapeutics Inc.
Low J, medRxiv, 2021 a

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

ARCT-021 1mcg

ARCT-021 5mcg

ARCT-021 7.5mcg

ARCT-021 10mcg

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy HIV-negative adults at a single Center in Singapore. N= 42
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04962906; NCT05027672
Gamaleya Research Institute, AstraZeneca+University of Oxford;Moderna;Sinopharm
Macchia A, Lancet Reg Health Am, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26-S

Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26-S/BBIBP-CorV

RCT
Phase 2
Adults who had received the first dose (rAd26) of the Sputnik V vaccine at least 30 days earlier and no history of SARS-CoV-2 at a single centre in Argentina N= 540
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04677660
ModernaTX
Masuda T, Vaccine, 2022 a

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

mRNA-1273

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1-2
Healthy adults aged ≥ 20 years with no known history/risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection at 2 centers in Japan. N= 200
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04611243
Sinovac/Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Mok C K P, Am. J. Respir. Crit., 2022

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

CoronaVac/Boost BNT162b2

RCT
*
Adults that had received two doses of CoronaVac but had low immune response against SARS-CoV-2 at two centres in Hong Kong, China N= 80
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04955626
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Moreira E D, N Engl J Med, 2022

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2/Boost BNT162b2

BNT162b2/Boost placebo

RCT
Phase 3
Adults and adolescents (from age of 16 years) that had received two doses BNT162b2 in a previous trial at least 6 months previously and had no history of COVID-19 at 123 sites in Brazil, South Africa, and the USA N= 10,136
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04368728
Pfizer/BioNTech + Fosun Pharma
Mulligan MJ, Nature, 2020

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

*

*

RCT
phase 1/2
Healthy adult volunteers with HIV-negative and SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in multiple centres in the USA. N= NR
High
Details

Full description

ISRCTN73765130
AstraZeneca + University of Oxford; Janssen Pharmaceutical; Novovax; Moderna + NIAID; Pfizer BioNTech + Fosun Pharma; CureVac AG; Valneva, NIHR, UK
Munro A, Lancet, 2021 d
COV-BOOST

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2/Boost BNT162b2

BNT162b2/Boost VLA2001

BNT162b2/Boost VLA2001 half dose

BNT162b2/Boost Ad26.COV2.S

BNT162b2/Boost placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Adults aged ≥30 years in good physical health at 18 centers in the UK. N= 2883
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ISRCTN73765130 ; EudraCT 2021-002175-19
Pfizer/BioNTech;ModernaTX
Munro APS, Lancet Infect Dis, 2022
COV-BOOST

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2/1st boost BNT162b2/2nd boost BNT162b2

ChadOx1/1st boost BNT162b2/2nd boost BNT162b2

BNT162b2/1st boost BNT162b2/2nd boost half dose m-RNA 1273

ChadOx1/1st boost BNT162b2/2nd boost half dose m-RNA 1273

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults aged 30 years or over, including elderly and those with well controlled or mild-moderate comorbidity, who had received a 2-dose primary schedule of either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 and a BNT162b2 booster at 18 centers in the UK N= 166
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05047640
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma; Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies
Natori Y, Transpl Int, 2023

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

BNT162b2/boostAd26

BNT162b2/boostBNT

RCT
Phase 3
Transplants recpients 18 years of age or older who had received 2 doses of BNT162b2, in a single center in USA. N= 60
Some concerns
Details

Full description

TCTR20210907003, TCTR20211102006
AstraZeneca + University of Oxford ; Pfizer/BioNTech + Fosun Pharma
Niyomnaitham S, Vaccines, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Prime Coronavac/Boost ID 1/5 ChAdOx1

Prime Coronavac/Boost ID 1/6 BNT162b2

RCT
Phase 1-2
Healthy adults with no known history of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection at a single center in Thailand. N= 90
Some concerns
Details

Full description

TCTR20210720007
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma; AstraZeneca+University of Oxford ;Sinovac
Niyomnaitham S, Hum Vaccin Immunother, 2022 a

Full text
Commentary
Heterologous vaccination scheme

CoronaVac/ChAdOx1

CoronaVac/BNT162b2

ChAdOx1/CoronaVac

ChAdOx1/BNT162b2

BNT162b2/CoronaVac

BNT162b2+ChAdOx1

BNT162b2

RCT
Phase 2
Adults including healthy or stable co-morbidities that were SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in a single centre in Thailand. N= 210
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05142319
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma; ModernaTX
Poh XY, Clin. Infect. Dis., 2022
PRIBIVAC

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2/Boost mRNA-1273

BNT162b2/Boost BNT162b2

RCT
3
Adults at a single center in Singapore with no previous history of COVID-19 who had received a primary series of BTN162b2 at least 6 months previously N= 100
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04368728
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Polack F, N Engl J Med, 2020

Full text
Commentary
; Commentary
; Commentary
; Commentary
; Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2 10mcg D1/D21

Normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride) D1/D21

RCT
Phase 2/3
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 DNA negative adults in multiple centres in Argentina, Brazil, Germany, South Africa, Turkey, and the USA N= 43548
Some concerns
Details

Full description

TCTR20210923012
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Puthanakit T, Vaccine: X, 2022 b

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

CoronaVac+BNT162b2/Boost BNT162b2 15 mcg

CoronaVac+BNT162b2/Boost BNT162b2 10 mcg

CoronaVac+BNT162b2/Boost BNT162b2

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adolescents with no prior COVID-19 infection or vaccination at a single center in Thailand. N= 52
Some concerns
Details

Full description

EudraCT021-002927-39
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma/Moderna/Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies
Reindl-Schwaighofer R, JAMA, 2021

Full text
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2/Homologous boost

mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2/Boost Ad26COVS1

RCT
Phase 2
Adult kidney transplant recipients with no history of COVID-19 infection and without an antibody response 4 weeks after a 2-dose mRNA vaccine schedule at a single center in Austria. N= 201
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04927936
Janssen Pharmaceutical;Moderna ;Pfizer/BionTech+Fosun Pharma
Sablerolles R, Clin Infect Dis, 2022
SWITCH

Full text
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Placebo

Ad26.COV2.S/Boost m-RNA-1273

Ad26.COV2.S/Boost BNT162b2

Ad26.COV2.S/Boost Ad26.COV2.S

RCT
Phase 3
Healthcare workers aged 18-65 years, without severe comorbidities, and no known history of SARS-CoV-2 infection who received a single Ad26.COV2.S primary vaccination at 4 centers in the Netherlands. N= 461
Some concerns
Details

Full description

jRCT2031210470
Shionogi;Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Shinkai M, Vaccine, 2022

Full text
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

BNT162b2/Boost S-268019-b

BNT162b2/Boost BNT162b2

RCT
Phase 2-3
Adults who had received 2 doses of BNT162b2 vaccine at least 6 months earlier with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection at a single centre in Japan N= 204
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04805125
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma; ModernaTX
Speich B, Clin Infect Dis, 2022

Full text
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2

mRNA-1273

RCT
Phase 3
Adult patients living with HIV (PLWH) or solid organ transplant recipients who were SARS-CoV-2 infection-free for the last 3 months in 3 centres in Switzerland. N= 430
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ISRCTN27841311; EudraCT 2021-001275-16
Pfizer BioNTech + Fosun Pharma / Novavax / Moderna + NIAID
Stuart A, Lancet, 2021 b
Com-COV2

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

1 dose BNT162b2 followed by 1 dose NVX-CoV2373

1 dose BNT162b2 followed by 1 dose mRNA-1273

2 doses BNT162b2

RCT
Phase 2
Adults over 50 years previously vaccinated with one dose of BNT162b2 at 9 centres in the UK N= 532
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ISRCTN27841311; EudraCT 2021-001275-16
AstraZeneca + University of Oxford / Novavax / Moderna + NIAID
Stuart A, Lancet, 2021 a
Com-COV2

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

1 dose ChAdOx1 followed by 1 dose NVX-CoV2373

1 dose ChAdOx1 followed by 1 dose mRNA-1273

2 doses ChAdOx1

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults over 50 years previously vaccinated with one dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in 9 centres in the UK N= 540
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04368728
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Thomas S, N Engl J Med, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2-3
Children (>=12Y yo), adolescentes and adults, with no history or SARS-CoV 2 infection at 152 sites in Argentina, Brazil, Germany, South Africa, Turkey and USA N= 44165
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04368728
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Walsh E, N Engl J Med, 2020

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

RNA-based COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b1 - 10mcg x 2 doses on day 1/22

Normal saline placebo (0.9% sodium chloride) x 2 doses on day 1/21

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 serology/DNA negative adults in four centres in USA N= 195
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04816643
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Walter E, N Engl J Med, 2021

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2 10 mcg

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2-3
Children aged 5-11 years with or without stable co-morbidities with no history of COVID-19 in 81 centres in the USA, Spain, Finland, and Poland N= 2285
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2200057758
Walvax Biotech Co., Ltd ; Walvax Biotechnology + Shanghai RNACure Biopharma ; Shanghai Zerun Biotechnology + Walvax Biotechnology + CEPI ; Sinovac Research an
Zhang Y, Nature, 2023

Full text
Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

CoronaVac/Boost ChAdTS-S

CoronaVac/Boost RQ3013

CoronaVac/Boost ZR202-CoV

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

CoronaVac/Boost placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Adults aged 18-59, healthy or with stable pre-existing disease and with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, at a single center in China. N= 250
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04523571 ; ChiCTR
Pfizer/BioNTech + Fosun Pharma
Zhu F, ResearchSquare, 2021

Full text
Commentary
; Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT126b1 30 mcg/0.5 ml 2-dose Days 0,21

Saline 0.5 m l Days 0,21

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 infection-free adults aged 18-55 and 65-85 at a single center in China N= 144
Low
Details

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