COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness
(Randomized evidence)

Methods

Protocol

Analyses are updated every two weeks

meta-COVID

Perform your own analysis using COVID-NMA data, create and download your forest plots by clicking below:

go to metacovid

Vaccine types

Vaccine efficacy and safety for vaccine vs placebo / no vaccine (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy and safety for vaccine vs vaccine (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy and safety against variants of concern (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of heterologous vs homologous vaccination (tables)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of booster vs no booster (tables)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of booster VS booster (tables)

Search studies

Search by Vaccine name Author Registration number
Trial Type Comparisons Design Participants Sample size Overall risk
of bias
Highest assessment
Full description
Intervention 1 Intervention 2
NCT04672395
Clover Biopharmaceuticals Inc./Dynavax
Bravo L, Lancet, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

SCB-2019 30 mcg + CpG/Alum

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2-3
Healthy adults or with stable chronic conditions, both SARS-CoV-2 seropositive and seronegative, at 31 centers in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Philippines, and South Africa. N=30174
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2100051998
Sinovac Research and Development Co. Ltd.; Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical + Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Cao Y, Cell Res, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac + Booster ZF2001

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

RCT
Phase 2
Healthcare professionals with no previous confirmed COVID-19 at a single center in China who had received two doses of CoronaVac in a 28-day interval 4–8 months earlier N=164
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04495933
The University of Queensland; Syneos Health; CSIRO Manufacturing; Seqirus; Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations
Chappell K, Lancet, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

2 doses 5-mcg SARS-CoV-2 Sclamp

2 doses 15-mcg SARS-CoV-2 Sclamp

2 doses 45-mcg SARS-CoV-2 Sclamp

1 dose 45-mcg SARS-CoV-2 Sclamp, 1 dose placebo

0·9% saline (0·5 mL)

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 infection-free adults aged 18-55 at one center in Australia. N=120
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04611802
Novavax
Dunkle L M, N Engl J Med, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

NVX-CoV2373

Placebo

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults in 113 sites in the USA and 6 in Mexico N=29949
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04368988
Novavax
Formica N, PLoS Med, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

NVX-CoV2373 5mcg D0/21

NVX-CoV2373 5mcg D0/Placebo D21

NVX-CoV2373 25mcg D0/21

NVX-CoV2373 25mcg D0/Placebo D21

Placebo D0/D21

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults (stable comorbidities permitted) aged 18-84 years at 17 centers in Australia and USA N=1288
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04537208
Sanofi Pasteur, GlaxoSmithKline
Goepfert P, Lancet, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

CoV2 preS dTM 1.3 mcg + AFO3 D0/21

CoV2 preS dTM 1.3 mcg + ASO3 D0/21

CoV2 preS dTM 2.6 mcg + AFO3 D0/21

CoV2 preS dTM 2.6 mcg + ASO3 D0/21

CoV2 preS dTM 2.6 mcg D0/21

Placebo D0/21

RCT
Phase 1-2
Health adults aged 18 years and older and SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in 10 centres in the USA. N=271
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04583995; EudraCT 2020-004123-16
Novavax
Heath P, N Engl J Med, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

NVX-CoV2373 5 mcg D0/21

Placebo D0/21

RCT
Phase 3
Adults 18 to 84 years old who were healthy or had stable chronic medical conditions with no history of COVID-19 at 33 centres in the UK. N=15187
Some concerns
Details

Full description

RPCEC00000346
Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB)
Hernandez-Bernal , EClinicalMedicine, 2022 b
ABDALA
Updated

Full text
Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

25mcg CIGB D0/D14/D28

50mcg CIGB D0/D14/D28

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 2
Adults 19 to 80 years old that were SARS-CoV-2 infection-free and with no recent contact or high-risk of exposure to COVID-19 at a single center in Cuba N=726
Some concerns
Details

Full description

RPCEC00000346
Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB)
Hernandez-Bernal, EClinicalMedicine, 2022 a
ABDALA
Updated

Full text
Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

25mcg CIGB D0/D14/D28

25mcg CIGB D0/D28/D56

50mcg CIGB D0/D28/D56

50mcg CIGB D0/D14/D28

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy adults that were SARS-CoV-2 infection-free and with no recent contact or high-risk of exposure to COVID-19 at a single center in Cuba N=132
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04695652
Medigen Vaccine Biologics+Dynavax+NIAID
Hsieh SM, Lancet, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

MVC-COV1901

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults and adults with stable pre-existing medical conditions at 11 centers in Taiwan. N=3854
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04368988
Novavax
Keech C, N Engl J Med, 2020

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

NVX-CoV2373 25mcg D0/21

NVX-CoV2373 5mcg/Matrix-M1 50 mcg D0/21

NVX-CoV2373 25mcg/Matrix-M1 50 mcg D0/21

NVX-CoV2373 25mcg/Matrix-M1 50 mcg D0/ Placebo D21

Placebo D0/21

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy adult volunteers, SARS-CoV-2 infection-free and no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection in two centres in Australia. N=134
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2100045108
Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Liao Y, Emerg Microbes Infec, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

V-01 10 mcg

V-01 25 mcg

V-01 50 mcg

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy seronegative adults with no history of COVID-19 in a single center in China N=180
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04951388
Medigen Vaccine Biologics+Dynavax+NIAID
Liu LTC, medRxiv, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

MVC-COV1901 15 mcg D0/28

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with no serious medical conditions and no previous SARS-CoV-1 infection or vaccination at 5 centers in Taiwan. N=399
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04368988
Novavax
Mallory R, medRxiv, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

NVX-CoV2373 boost

NVX-CoV2373

NVX-CoV2373

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults (stable comorbidities and confirmed COVID-19 with mild symptoms permitted) who had received 2 doses NVX-CoV2373 or placebo in a trial at 17 centers in Australia and USA N=383 N/A

Full description

NCT04640402
West China Hospital of Sichuan University
Meng F, Signal Transduct Tar, 2021 b

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

COVID-19 vaccine (Sf9 cells) 20 mcg D0/14/28

COVID-19 vaccine (Sf9 cells) 40 mcg D0/21

COVID-19 vaccine (Sf9 cells) 20 mcg D0/21

COVID-19 vaccine (Sf9 cells) 40 mcg D0/14/28

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults with no history of COVID-19 in a single centre in China N=960
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04530656
West China Hospital of Sichuan University
Meng F, Signal Transduct Tar, 2021 a

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

COVID-19 vaccine (Sf9 cells) 20 mcg D0/28

COVID-19 vaccine (Sf9 cells) 40 mcg D0/28

COVID-19 vaccine (Sf9 cells) 40 mcg D0/14/28

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy adults with no history of COVID-19 in a single centre in China N=168
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04683484
Nanogen Pharmaceutical Biotechnology JSC
Nguyen T, SSRN, 2021 b

Full text
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

Nanocovax 25 mcg

Nanocovax 50 mcg

Nanocovax 75 mcg

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy HIV-negative and seronegative adults at 2 centers in Vietnam N=560
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04683484
Nanogen Pharmaceutical Biotechnology JSC
Nguyen T, Lancet, 2022 a
Updated

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

Nanocovax 25 mcg

Nanocovax 50 mcg

Nanocovax 75 mcg

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy HIV-negative and seronegative adults at a single center in Vietnam N=60
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04922788
Nanogen Pharmaceutical Biotechnology JSC.
Nguyen TP, medRxiv, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

Nanocovax

Placebo

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adult without previous or current SARS-CoV-2 infection in four centres in Vietnam. N=13007
Some concerns
Details

Full description

RPCEC00000338
Finlay Vaccine Institute
Pérez-Rodríguez S, Vaccine, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

FINLAY-FR-1A 25 mcg

FINLAY-FR-1A 50 mcg

FINLAY-FR-1

RCT
Phase 1
Adults, age 19-59, with no history of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection at a single center in Cuba. N=60
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04405908
Clover Biopharmaceuticals Inc./Dynavax
Richmond P, Lancet, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

SCB-2019 3 mcg

SCB-2019 3 mcg + AS03 18-75yrs D1/D22

SCB-2019 3 mcg + CpG/Alum 18-75yrs D1/D22

SCB-2019 9 mcg

SCB-2019 9 mcg + AS03 18-75yrs D1/D22

SCB-2019 9 mcg + CpG/Alum 18-75yrs D1/D22

SCB-2019 30 mcg

SCB-2019 30 mcg + AS03 18-75yrs D1/D22

SCB-2019 30 mcg + CpG/Alum 18-75yrs D1/D22

0.5mL 0.9% sodium chloride placebo

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 serology/DNA negative adults aged 18-75 years at one study center in Australia N=151
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04527575
EpiVac LLC; VECTOR
Ryzhikov AB, Infektsiia Immun, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

EpiVacCorona

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adult SARS-CoV-2 infection-free volunteers in a single center in Russia. N=86
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04533399; PACTR202009726132275
Novavax
Shinde V, N Engl J Med, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

5mcg NVX-CoV2373 with 50 mcg Matrix-M1 adjuvant

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
HIV-negative adults (18 to 84 years) and medically stable HIV-positive adults (18 to 64 years) at 16 sites in South Africa N=4406
Some concerns
Details

Full description

jRCT2031210470
Shionogi;Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Shinkai M, medRxiv, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

BNT162b2/booster S-268019-b

BNT162b2/boostBNT

RCT
Phase 2-3
Adults who had received 2 doses of BNT162b2 vaccine at least 6 months earlier with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection at a single centre in Japan N=204
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2100045107
Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Livzon Bio Inc.; Guangdong Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention; Gaozhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Shu Y-J, Chin. Med. J., 2021

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

V-01 10 mcg

V-01 25 mcg

V-01 50 mcg

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Younger (18-59) and older (60+) healthy adults with no current or past SARS-CoV-2 infection (PCR and ELISA) at a single centre in China N=880
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04762680
Sanofi Pasteur+GlaxoSmithKline
Sridhar S, Lancet Infect Dis , 2022

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

CoV2 preS dTM 15 mcg

CoV2 preS dTM 10 mcg

CoV2 preS dTM 5 mcg

RCT
Phase 2
Adults with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and risk factors for severe disease at 20 centers in the USA and Honduras N=722
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ISRCTN27841311; EudraCT 2021-001275-16
AstraZeneca + University of Oxford / Novavax / Moderna + NIAID
Stuart A, Lancet, 2021 a
Com-COV2

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

1 dose ChAdOx1 followed by 1 dose NVX-CoV2373

1 dose ChAdOx1 followed by 1 dose mRNA-1273

2 doses ChAdOx1

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults over 50 years previously vaccinated with one dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in 9 centres in the UK N=540
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ISRCTN27841311; EudraCT 2021-001275-16
Pfizer BioNTech + Fosun Pharma / Novavax / Moderna + NIAID
Stuart A, Lancet, 2021 b
Com-COV2

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

1 dose BNT162b2 followed by 1 dose NVX-CoV2373

1 dose BNT162b2 followed by 1 dose mRNA-1273

2 doses BNT162b2

RCT
Phase 2
Adults over 50 years previously vaccinated with one dose of BNT162b2 at 9 centres in the UK N=532
Some concerns
Details

Full description

CTRI/2021/08/036074
Biological E;AstraZeneca+University of Oxford
Thuluva , medRxiv, 2022 b

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

2 IM doses of 25 mcg BECOV2

ChAdOx1

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults without a history of Covid-19 vaccination or SARS-CoV-2 infection at 20 centers in India. N=2140
Some concerns
Details

Full description

CTRI/2021/10/037066
Biological E. Limited
Thuluva , medRxiv, 2022 a

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

BECOV2<12 to ≥5

BECOV2<18 to ≥12

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2-3
Healthy children and adolescents who were SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody negative in 23 centers in India N=624
Low
Details

Full description

RPCEC00000347
Instituto Finlay de Vacunas
Toledo-Romani ME, medRxiv, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

FINLAY-FR-2-25 mcg +FR-1-50 mcg

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 2b
Healthy adults with no known or suspected history of COVID-19 at 2 centers in Cuba. N=810
Some concerns
Details

Full description

RPCEC00000354
Instituto Finlay de Vacunas
Toledo-Romani ME, medRxiv, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

FINLAY-FR-2-25 mcg, 2 doses

Placebo

RCT
Phase 3
Adults in medically stable condition with no self-reported previous COVID-19 infection at 48 centers in Cuba N=29352
Some concerns
Details

Full description

RPCEC00000354
Instituto Finlay de Vacunas
Toledo-Romani ME, medRxiv, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

FINLAY-FR-2-25 mcg +FR-1-50 mcg

Placebo

RCT
Phase 3
Adults in medically stable condition with no self-reported previous COVID-19 infection at 48 centers in Cuba N=29356
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04466085
Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical Co., Ltd
Yang S, Lancet, 2021 b

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

ZF2001 25 mcg per 0.5 mL, with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, days 0, 30

ZF2001 50 mcg per 0.5 mL, with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, days 0, 30

ZF2001 25 mcg per 0.5 mL, with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, days 0, 30, 60

ZF2001 50 mcg per 0.5 mL, with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, days 0, 30, 60

aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, days 0, 30

aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, days 0, 30

aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, days 0, 30, 60

aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, days 0, 30, 60

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 infection-free adults aged 18-59 at 1 center in China N=900
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04445194
Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical Co., Ltd
Yang S, Lancet, 2021 a

Full text
Commentary
Protein subunit

ZF2001 25 mcg per 0.5 mL, with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, days 0, 30, 60

ZF2001 50 mcg per 0.5 mL, with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, days 0, 30, 60

aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, days 0, 30, 60

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 infection-free adults aged 18-59 at 2 centers in China N=50
Some concerns
Details

Full description