COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness
(Randomized evidence)

Methods

Protocol

Analyses are updated every two weeks

meta-COVID

Perform your own analysis using COVID-NMA data, create and download your forest plots by clicking below:

go to metacovid

Vaccine types

Vaccine efficacy and safety for vaccine vs placebo / no vaccine (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy and safety for vaccine vs vaccine (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy and safety against variants of concern (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of heterologous vs homologous vaccination (tables)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of booster vs no booster (tables)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of booster VS booster (tables)

Search studies

Search by Vaccine name Author Registration number
Trial Type Comparisons Design Participants Sample size Overall risk
of bias
Highest assessment
Full description
Intervention 1 Intervention 2
NCT04568031
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford
Asano M, Int J Infect Dis, 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

ChAdOx1

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1-2
Adults with or without mild, well-controlled co-morbidities seronegative and PCR negative to SARS-CoV-2 at 5 centres in Japan N=256
Low
Details

Full description

ISRCTN89951424
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford
Clemens S, Nat. Commun., 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

ChAdOx1

MenACWY

RCT
Phase 3
Adults that were SARS-CoV-2 seronegative and with no history of COVID-19 in six centers in Brazil. N=10416
Some concerns
Details

Full description

RBR–9nn3scw
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford/Sinovac/Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies/Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Costa Clemens SA, Lancet, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

CoronaVac/Boost BNT162b2

CoronaVac/Boost ChAdOx1

CoronaVac/Boost AD26.COV2-S

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

RCT
Phase 4
Healthy adults with no history of confirmed covid-19 who had previously received 2 doses of CoronaVac at two centers in Brazil N=1240
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04400838
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford
Emary K, Lancet, 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

ChAdOx1

MenACWY

RCT
Phase 2-3
Adults seronegative at baseline enrolled at 19 study sites in UK N=10673
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04516746
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford
Falsey A, N Engl J Med, 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

ChAdOx1

Placebo

RCT
Phase 3
Adults (22% over 65 years) at high risk for exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and populations at increased risk for Covid-19 complications at 88 sites in USA, Chile, and Peru N=32451
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04324606; ISRCTN15281137
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford
Folegatti PM, Lancet, 2020 ()
COV001

Full text
Commentary
; Commentary
(20)31611-1/fulltext
Non replicating viral vector

ChAdOx1 5x10^10 D1

MenACWY

RCT
Phase 1-2
Healthy adults with no history of laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection or of COVID-19-like symptoms in five centres in the UK N=1067
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04526990
CanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
Halperin SA, Lancet, 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Ad5-nCoV 5×10^10 vp

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults with no history of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 at 66 sites in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Pakistan, and Russia N=36982
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04614948
Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies
Hardt K, medRxiv, 2022 (b)
ENSEMBLE2

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Boost Ad26.COV2.S after prime vaccination with Ad26.COV2.S 5x10^10vp D0

Placebo

RCT
Phase 3
Adults, healthy or with stable and well-controlled comorbidities, at 125 centers in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, France, Germany, The Philippines, South Africa, Spain, UK, and USA N=31835
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04614948
Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies
Hardt K, medRxiv, 2022 (a)
ENSEMBLE2

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Ad26.COV2.S 5x10^10vp D0

Placebo

RCT
Phase 3
Adults, healthy or with stable and well-controlled comorbidities, at 125 centers in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, France, Germany, The Philippines, South Africa, Spain, UK, and USA N=31835
Some concerns
Details

Full description

CTRI/2020/08/027170
Serum Institute of India/AstraZeneca+University of Oxford
Kulkarni P, EClinicalMedicine, 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

SII-ChAdOx1 nCoV-19

ChAdOx1

RCT
Phase 2-3
Adults (seronegative and seropositive) without a history of COVID and not immunocompromised at 14 centers in India N=401
Low
Details

Full description

CTRI/2020/08/027170
Serum Institute of India/AstraZeneca+University of Oxford
Kulkarni P, EClinicalMedicine, 2021 ()

Full text
(21)00499-5/fulltext#seccesectitle0022Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

SII-ChAdOx1 nCoV-19

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 2-3
Adults (seronegative and seropositive)without a history of COVID and not immunocompromised at 14 centers in India N=1200
Low
Details

Full description

ISRCTN15638344 ; EudraCT 2020-005765-13
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford
Li G, SSRN, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

ChAdOx1

ChAdOx1 D0/84

Placebo

Placebo D0/84

RCT
Phase 1-2
Healthy adolescents aged 12-17 years with no history of COVID-19 at 4 centers in the UK N=150
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04892459
Sinovac Research and Development Co Ltd + CanSino Biological Inc /Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
Li J, Nat. Med., 2022 ()

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

CoronaVac/boost Ad5-vectored 5×10^10 vp

CoronaVac/boost

RCT
Phase 4
Healthy adults with no previous clinical or virologic COVID-19 diagnosis or SARS-CoV-2 infection at one centre in China N=200
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04892459
Sinovac Research and Development Co Ltd+CanSino Biological Inc / Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
Li J, Nat. Med., 2022 ()

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

1 dose CoronaVac / 1 dose Ad5-vectored

2 doses CoronaVac

RCT
Phase 4
Healthy adults with no previous clinical or virologic COVID-19 diagnosis or SARS-CoV-2 infection at one centre in China N=100
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04540419
CanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
Lioznov D, medRxiv, 2022
Prometheus

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Ad5-nCoV 5x10^10vp D0

Placebo

RCT
phase 3
Healthy adult volunteers without obesity with no current or previous SARS-CoV-2 infection in 6 centres in Russia. N=500
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ISRCTN69254139, EudraCT: 2020-005085-33
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford; Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Liu X, Lancet, 2021 ()
Com-COV

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

1 dose ChAdOx1/ 1 dose BNT162b2

1 dose BNT162b2 /1 dose ChAdOx1

2 doses ChAdOx1

2 doses BNT162b2

RCT
Phase 2
Adults 50 years or older with no previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, no or well-controlled mild-moderate comorbidities and HIV-negative in 8 centers in the UK N=463
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04530396
Gamaleya Research Institute (Sputnik V)
Logunov D, Lancet, 2021 ()
RESIST

Full text
Commentary
; Commentary
; Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26-S

Placebo D0/21

RCT
Phase 3
SARS-CoV-2- and HIV infection-free adult volunteers at 25 centers in Russia N=21977
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04962906; NCT05027672
Gamaleya Research Institute, AstraZeneca+University of Oxford;Moderna;Sinopharm
Macchia A, Lancet Reg Health Am, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26-S

Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26-S/BBIBP-CorV

RCT
Phase 2
Adults who had received the first dose (rAd26) of the Sputnik V vaccine at least 30 days earlier and no history of SARS-CoV-2 at a single centre in Argentina N=540
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04444674
AstraZeneca + University of Oxford
Madhi S, N Engl J Med, 2021 ()
COV005

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

ChAdOx1 5x10^10 vp D0/28

Placebo D0/28

RCT
Phase 1-2
Healthy adult volunteers that were HIV-negative and SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in 7 centres in South Africa N=2026
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04444674, PACTR202006922165132
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford
Madhi S, Lancet, 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

BNT162b1 30 mcg

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1-2
Adults living with HIV in 7 centers in South Africa N=104
Low
Details

Full description

ISRCTN73765130
AstraZeneca + University of Oxford; Janssen Pharmaceutical; Novovax; Moderna + NIAID; Pfizer BioNTech + Fosun Pharma; CureVac AG; Valneva, NIHR, UK
Munro A , Lancet, 2021 (a)
COV-BOOST

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

ChadOx1/boost ChadOx1

ChadOx1/boost Novavax

ChadOx1/boost Novavax half dose

ChadOx1/Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Adults aged ≥30 years in good physical health at 18 centers in the UK. N=443
Some concerns
Details

Full description

TCTR20210722003
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford
Nanthapisal S, Vaccine, 2022
Updated

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

CoronaVac/Boost ChAdOx1

CoronaVac Boosted by low dose ChAdOx1

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adult volunteers with no history or current infection with SARS-CoV-2 who had completed two doses of CoronaVac at 2 centres in Thailand. N=422
Some concerns
Details

Full description

EudraCT021-002927-39
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma/Moderna/Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies
Reindl-Schwaighofer R, JAMA, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2/homologous booster

mRNAorBNT/Ad26COVS1 booster

RCT
Phase 2
Adult kidney transplant recipients with no history of COVID-19 infection and without an antibody response 4 weeks after a 2-dose mRNA vaccine schedule at a single center in Austria. N=201
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04927936
Janssen Pharmaceutical;Moderna ;Pfizer/BionTech+Fosun Pharma
Sablerolles R, N Engl J Med, 2022 ()

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Ad26.COV2.S/m-RNA-1273

Ad26.COV2.S/Ad26.COV2.S

Ad26.COV2.S/Ad26.COV2.S

Ad26.COV2.S/BNT162b2

Ad26.COV2.S/m-RNA-1273

Ad26.COV2.S/BNT162b2

RCT
Phase 3
Healthcare workers aged 18-65 years, without severe comorbidities, and no known history of SARS-CoV-2 infection who received a single Ad26.COV2.S primary vaccination at 4 centers in the Netherlands. N=461
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04436276
Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies
Sadoff J, N Engl J Med, 2021 (a)
ENSEMBLE

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Ad26.COV2.S, 5x10^10vp

Ad26.COV2.S, 1x10^11vp

0.9% saline placebo

RCT
Phase 1-2
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negative adults 18-55 years old and elderly >65 years old in multiple centres in Belgium and the US N=810
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04505722
Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies
Sadoff J, N Engl J Med, 2022 (b)
ENSEMBLE

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Ad26.COV2.S 5x10^10vp

Placebo

RCT
Phase 3
Adults >18 years of age at 213 centers in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, South Africa and USA N=44325
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04436276
Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies
Stephenson K, JAMA, 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Ad26.COV2.S

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy adults aged 18-55 years that were SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in a single centre in USA. N=10
Low
Details

Full description

ISRCTN27841311; EudraCT 2021-001275-16
AstraZeneca + University of Oxford / Novavax / Moderna + NIAID
Stuart A, Lancet, 2021 (a)
Com-COV2

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

1 dose ChAdOx1 followed by 1 dose NVX-CoV2373

1 dose ChAdOx1 followed by 1 dose mRNA-1273

2 doses ChAdOx1

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults over 50 years previously vaccinated with one dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in 9 centres in the UK N=540
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ISRCTN89951424
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford
Voysey M, Lancet, 2020 ()
COV003

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine x 2 doses, Days 0/28, 0.5mL (3.5 - 6.5 x 10^10vp)

Meningococcal group A, C, W-135, and Y conjugate vaccine Day 0, saline 0.5mL (0.9% NaCl) Day 28

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 serology/DNA negative adults in six centres in Brazil N=10002
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04324606;ISRCTN89951424;NCT04400838;NCT04444674
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford
Voysey M, Lancet, 2021 ()
COV001/COV002/COV003/COV005

Full text
Commentary
; Commentary
; Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, 2 doses, low/standard or standard/standard

MenACWY vaccine/ placebo

RCT
Phase 1/2/3
Adults seronegative at baseline from four studies in multiple centres in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK N=24422
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04400838
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford
Voysey M, Lancet, 2020 ()
COV002

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine x 2 doses, Days 0/28, 0.5mL (2·2 × 10¹? vp) /0.5mL (3.5 - 6.5 x 10¹?vp)

ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine x 2 doses, Days 0/28, 0.5mL (3.5 - 6.5 x 10¹?vp)

Meningococcal group A, C, W-135, and Y conjugate vaccine 0.5mL, 2 x doses, Days 0/28

RCT
Phase 2/3
Healthy adults in 18 centres in the UK N=10673
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04552366
Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, Beijing, China, and CanSino Biologics
Wu S, Lancet, 2021 ()

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Ad5-nCoV 2x10^10 vp mu D0/28

Ad5-nCoV 2x10^10 vp mu D0/28

Ad5-nCoV 2x10^10 vp mu D0/28

Ad5-nCoV 2x10^10 vp mu D0/28

Ad5-nCoV 1x10^10 vp mu D0/28

Ad5-nCoV 5x10^10 vp im D0/ Ad5-nCoV 2x10^10 vp mu D28

Ad5-nCoV 5x10^10 vp im D0

Ad5-nCoV 10x10^10 vp im D0

RCT
Phase 1
Adults who were HIV-negative and seronegative for SARS-CoV-2 at a single center in China N=130
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04566770
CanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
Zhu F, Clin Infect Dis, 2021 (a)

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Ad5-vectored 5×10^10 vp

Ad5-vectored 10×10^10 vp

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2b
Healthy volunteers aged 56 years and above that were HIV-negative and SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in a single centre in China. N=250
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04341389
CanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
Zhu F, Lancet, 2020 ()

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Ad5-nCoV 1×10^11 vp D0

Ad5-nCoV 5×10^10 vp D0

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adult volunteers with HIV-negative and SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in a single centre in China. N=508
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04566770
CanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
Zhu F , Clin. Infect. Dis., 2021 (b)

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Ad5-nCoV 3x10¹⁰ vp

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2b
Healthy children and adolescents aged 6-17 years that were HIV-negative and SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in a single centre in China. N=150
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04566770
CanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
Zhu F, Research Square, 2021 (d)

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Ad5-vectored 5x10^10 vp

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2b
Healthy adults aged 18-55 years, HIV-negative and SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in a single centre in China. N=30
Low
Details

Full description