COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness
(Randomized evidence)

Methods

Protocol

Analyses are updated every two weeks

meta-COVID

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Vaccine types

Vaccine efficacy and safety for vaccine vs placebo / no vaccine (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy and safety for vaccine vs vaccine (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy and safety against variants of concern (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of heterologous vs homologous vaccination (tables)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of booster vs no booster (tables)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of booster VS booster (tables)

Search studies

Search by Vaccine name Author Registration number
Trial Type Comparisons Design Participants Sample size Overall risk
of bias
Highest assessment
Full description
Intervention 1 Intervention 2
NCT04651790
Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd
Abarca K, medRxiv, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac

Coronavac D0/28

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults including health care workers with no history of confirmed symptomatic SARS CoV-2 infection at eight centres in Chile N=2302
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05033847
National Vaccine and Serum Institute, China; Sinopharm + China National Biotec Group Co + Beijing Institute of Biological Products
Al Kaabi N, Sig Transduct Target, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Heterologous booster

Boost NVSI-06-07 after prime vaccination BBIBP-CorV

Boost BBIBP-CorV after prime vaccination BBIBP-CorV

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection who had previously received a primary series (two doses) of BBIBP-CorV at a single center in United Arab Emirates N=1800
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04510207, ChiCTR2000034780
Sinopharm-Beijing
Al Kaabi N, JAMA, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

BBIBP-CorV

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults free of known COVID-19 or HIV infection at 3 centres in United Arab Emirates and Bahrain N=26941
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04510207, ChiCTR2000034780
Sinopharm-Wuhan
Al Kaabi N, JAMA, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

WIBP-CorV

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults free of known COVID-19 or HIV infection at 3 centres in United Arab Emirates and Bahrain N=26941
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04651790
Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd
Bueno S, Clin Infect Dis, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac 3 mcg D0/14

Adjuvant D0/14

RCT
Phase 3
Adult healthcare workers with no history of confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection who were in contact with possible or confirmed cases of COVID-19 in 8 sites in Chile. N=434
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2100051998
Sinovac Research and Development Co. Ltd.; Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical + Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Cao Y, Cell Res, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac + Booster ZF2001

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

RCT
Phase 2
Healthcare professionals with no previous confirmed COVID-19 at a single center in China who had received two doses of CoronaVac in a 28-day interval 4–8 months earlier N=164
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04412538
Institute of Medical Biology (IMB), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS).
Che Y, Clin Infect Dis, 2020

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

KMS-1 SARS-CoV-2 inactivated virus vaccine - medium dose (100 EU) x 2 doses on day 0/14

KMS-1 SARS-CoV-2 inactivated virus vaccine - high dose (150 EU) x 2 doses on day 0/14

KMS-1 SARS-CoV-2 inactivated virus vaccine - medium dose (100 EU) x 2 doses on day 0/14

KMS-1 SARS-CoV-2 inactivated virus vaccine - high dose (150 EU) x 2 doses on day 0/14

aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in saline buffer

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 serology/DNA negative adults in two centres in China N=750
Some concerns
Details

Full description

RBR–9nn3scw
AstraZeneca+University of Oxford/Sinovac/Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies/Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Costa Clemens SA, Lancet, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

CoronaVac/Boost BNT162b2

CoronaVac/Boost ChAdOx1

CoronaVac/Boost AD26.COV2-S

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

RCT
Phase 4
Healthy adults with no history of confirmed covid-19 who had previously received 2 doses of CoronaVac at two centers in Brazil N=1240
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04641481
Bharat Biotech
Ella R, Lancet, 2021 b

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

BBV152

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 3
Adults with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection who were healthy or had stable chronic medical conditions at 25 centers in India N=25798
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04471519
Bharat Biotech
Ella R, Lancet Infect Dis, 2021 a
Updated

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

2 dose 3mcg BBV152 nCoV-19 vaccine + Algel-IMDG adjuvant, Days 0/14, 0.5mL

2 dose 6mcg BBV152 nCoV-19 vaccine + Algel-IMDG adjuvant, Days 0/14, 0.5mL

2 dose 6mcg BBV152 nCoV-19 vaccine + Algel adjuvant, Days 0/14, 0.5mL

Adjuvant (Algel)

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 serology/PCR negative adults in 11 centres in India N=375
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04471519
Bharat Biotech
Ella R, Lancet Infect Dis, 2021 b

Full text
Commentary
; Commentary
Inactivated virus

BBV152 6mcg + Algel-IMDG D0/28

BBV152 6mcg + Algel-IMDG D0/28

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults (<65 yo) and children (≥12 yo)volunteers, SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in 9 centres in India N=380
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04508075 ; INA-WXFM0YX
Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd
Fadlyana E, Vaccine, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac

Placebo

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults aged 18 - 59 years, seropositive and seronegative, at a single center in Indonesia N=1620
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2100041705, ChiCTR2100041706
Sinopharm-Beijing
Feng Y, Infect. Dis. Poverty, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

BBIBP-CorV 0-14D

BBIBP-CorV 0-21D

BBIBP-CorV 0-28D

RCT
4
Healthy adults from high-risk occupational population at a single center in China N=809
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000031809
Sinopharm-Wuhan
Guo W, EClinicalMedicine, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

WIBP-CorV 5 mcg D0/21

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 1-2
Healthy adults with no history of COVID-19 at 5 centers in China. N=1120
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04551547
Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd
Han B, Lancet Infect Dis, 2021
Updated

Full text
(21)00319-4/fulltext; Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac 1.5 mcg D0/28

CoronaVac 3 mcg D0/28

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 1/2
Healthy children and adolescents aged 3-17 years with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a single centre in China. N=552
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05046548
Chumakov FSC R&D IBP RAS
Ishmukhametov AA, medRxiv, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoviVac D0/D14

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 1-2
Adults aged 18-60 without immunosuppression, seronegative and seropositive, at 3 centers in the Russian Federation N=400
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04691908
Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, Rep of Kazakhstan
Khairullin B, EClinicalMedicine, 2022
Updated

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

QazCovid-in 5mcg D0/D21

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults or those with chronic diseases, with no known or suspected history of COVID-19 at 3 centers in Kazakhstan N=3000
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04864561
Valneva
Lazarus, SSRN, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

VLA2001 (33 AU)

ChAdOx1

RCT
Phase 3
Medically stable adults, 30 years and older, at 26 centers in the UK. N=2975
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04671017; ISRCTN 82411169
Valneva Austria GmbH
Lazarus R, J Infect, 2022

Full text
Full text
Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

VL A2001 3AU

VL A2001 3AU

VL A2001 35AU

VL A2001 7AU

RCT
Phase 1-2
Healthy adult volunteers aged 18-55 at 4 centers in the UK N=153
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04892459
Sinovac Research and Development Co Ltd + CanSino Biological Inc /Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
Li J, Nat. Med., 2022

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

CoronaVac/boost Ad5-vectored 5×10^10 vp

CoronaVac/boost

RCT
Phase 4
Healthy adults with no previous clinical or virologic COVID-19 diagnosis or SARS-CoV-2 infection at one centre in China N=200
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04892459
Sinovac Research and Development Co Ltd+CanSino Biological Inc / Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
Li J, Nat. Med., 2022

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

1 dose CoronaVac / 1 dose Ad5-vectored

2 doses CoronaVac

RCT
Phase 4
Healthy adults with no previous clinical or virologic COVID-19 diagnosis or SARS-CoV-2 infection at one centre in China N=100
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05043259
CanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology / Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd
Li JX, Lancet Respir Med, 2022

Full text
(22)00087-X/fulltext Full text
Commentary
Heterologous booster

CoronaVac/Boost high-dose aerosolized Ad5-nCoV

CoronaVac/Boost low-dose aerosolized Ad5-nCoV

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

RCT
Phase 1-2
Healthy adults without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection who completed two-dose priming with CoronaVac in the past 3-9 months at a single center in China N=420
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04383574
Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd
Li M, medRxiv, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac 3 mcg

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults aged ≥60 years with no known history of COVID-19 or recent exposure in a single center in China. N=350
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000039462
Shenzhen Kangtai Biological Products Co. Ltd.; Beijing Minhai Biotechnology Co. Ltd.
Liu J, J Infect Dis, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

KCONVAC 10mcg D0/28/56

KCONVAC 5mcg D0/28/56

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults aged 18-59 and ≥60 with no history of COVID-19 and seronegative at a single center in China N=500
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04962906; NCT05027672
Gamaleya Research Institute, AstraZeneca+University of Oxford;Moderna;Sinopharm
Macchia A, Lancet Reg Health Am, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Non replicating viral vector

Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26-S

Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26-S/BBIBP-CorV

RCT
Phase 2
Adults who had received the first dose (rAd26) of the Sputnik V vaccine at least 30 days earlier and no history of SARS-CoV-2 at a single centre in Argentina N=540
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04611243
Sinovac/Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Mok C K P, Am. J. Respir. Crit., 2022

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac/Boost CoronaVac

CoronaVac/Boost BNT162b2

RCT
*
Adults that had received two doses of CoronaVac but had low immune response against SARS-CoV-2 at two centres in Hong Kong, China N=80
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04456595
Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd
Palacios R, SSRN, 2021
PROFISCOV

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac 3mcg D0/14

Adjuvant D0/14

RCT
Phase 3
Healthcare professionals with or without previous COVID-19 infection caring for COVID-19 patients at 16 centers in Brazil. N=12408
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04352608
Sinovac Research and Development Co Ltd
Pan H , medRxiv, 2021 b

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac 3mcg 0/28/208

CoronaVac 6mcg 0/28/208

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults 18-59 years that were SARS-CoV-2 infection and antibody free at a single centre in China N=150
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04352608
Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd
Pan H , medRxiv, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac 3mcg 0/28/56

CoronaVac 6mcg 0/28/56

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults 18-59 years that were SARS-CoV-2 infection and antibody free at a single centre in China N=150
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04352608
Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd
Pan H, medRxiv, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac 3mcg D0/14/42

CoronaVac 6mcg D0/14/42

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults 18-59 years that were SARS-CoV-2 infection and antibody free at a single centre in China N=150
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04352608
Sinovac Research and Development Co Ltd
Pan H , medRxiv, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac 3mcg 0/14/194

CoronaVac 6mcg 0/14/194

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults 18-59 years that were SARS-CoV-2 infection and antibody free at a single centre in China N=150
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04756323, ChiCTR2000039462
Shenzhen Kangtai Biological Products and Beijing Minhai Biotechnology
Pan HX, Chin Med J, 2022 b

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

5mcg KCONVAC D0/14

5mcg KCONVAC D0/14

5mcg KCONVAC D0/28

5mcg KCONVAC D0/28

5mcg KCONVAC D0/14

10mcg KCONVAC D0/14

10mcg KCONVAC D0/14

5mcg KCONVAC D0/14

10mcg KCONVAC D0/28

Adjuvant

Adjuvant

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adult volunteers with no history of COVID-19 and HIV- and SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in a single centre in China. N=500
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04758273, ChiCTR2000038804
Shenzhen Kangtai Biological Products and Beijing Minhai Biotechnology
Pan HX, Chin Med J, 2022 a

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

KCONVAC 5mcg D0/14

KCONVAC 10mcg D0/14

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy adult volunteers, 18 to 59 years of age, with no history of COVID-19 and HIV- and SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in a single centre in China. N=60
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04764422
The Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO); PATH; Dynavax
Pitisuttithum P, medRxiv, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

NDV-HXP-S 1mcg

NDV-HXP-S 1mcg + CpG1018

NDV-HXP-S 3mcg

NDV-HXP-S 3mcg + CpG1018

NDV-HXP-S 10mcg

NDV-HXP-S 1mcg

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy adults without immunosuppression negative for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at a single center in Thailand N=210
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04412538
The Institute of Medical Biology (IMB), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAM
Pu J, Vaccine, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

2 IM doses of 100 EU SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine (medium dose), on day 0,14

2 IM doses of 100 EU SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine (medium dose), on day 0, 28

2 IM doses of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in saline buffer, on day 0, 14

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy adults aged 18 to 59 years, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid or antibodies negative in a single centre in China N=192
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04582344
Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd
Tanriover M, Lancet , 2021

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy healthcare workers and adults aged 18–59 years with no history of COVID-19 from 24 centres in Turkey N=10218
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04471519; CTRI/2021/04/032942
Bharat Biotech
Vadrevu KM, Sci Rep, 2022
Updated

Full text
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

Boost BBV152 after prime vaccination BBV152 6mcg D0/28

Placebo after prime vaccination BBV152 6mcg D0/28

RCT
Phase 2
Adolescents and adults aged 12-64 years with no history of confirmed COVID-19, who had received a 2-dose schedule of the same vaccine 6 months previously at 9 centers in India. N=184
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04383574
Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd
Wu Z, Lancet Infect Dis, 2021

Full text
Commentary
; Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac, 1.5mcg virus material inactivated SARS-CoV-2 whole virion vaccine, day 0/28

CoronaVac, 3mcg virus material inactivated SARS-CoV-2 whole virion vaccine, day 0/28

CoronaVac, 6mcg virus material inactivated SARS-CoV-2 whole virion vaccine, day 0/28

Adjuvant (Aluminum hydroxide)

RCT
Phase 1/2
Healthy adults aged 60 years and older with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a single centre in China N=422
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000031809
Sinopharm-Wuhan
Xia S, JAMA, 2020

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

WIBP-CorV 5mcg-D0/28/56

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy adults, aged 18 to 59 years, without history ofSARS-CoV(via on-site inquiry) or SARS-CoV-2 infection (via serologicaland nucleic acid test N=96
Low
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000032459
Sinopharm-Beijing
Xia S, Lancet Infect Dis, 2020

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

BBIBP-CorV 8mcg Day 0

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 serology negative adults 18-59 years old in a single centre in China N=448
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000031809
Sinopharm-Wuhan
Xia S, JAMA, 2020

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

WIBP-CorV 5mcg-D0/14

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults, aged 18 to 59 years, without history ofSARS-CoV(via on-site inquiry) or SARS-CoV-2 infection (via serologicaland nucleic acid test N=224
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000032459
Sinopharm-Beijing
Xia S , Lancet, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

BBIBP-CorV

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 1-2
Healthy children and adolescents aged 3 to 17 years free from SARS-CoV-2 infection and antibodies at a single centre in China N=1008
Low
Details

Full description

ChiCTR2000032459
Sinopharm-Beijing
Xia S, Lancet Infect Dis, 2020

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

BBIBP 4mcg

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy adults SARS-CoV-2 serology negative adults in a single centre in China N=192
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04530357
Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, Rep of Kazakhstan
Zakarya K , EClinicalMedicine, 2021

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

QazCovid-in

QazCovid-in D1

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults with no history of COVID-19 that tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 and HIV virus at a single centre in Kazakhstan. N=200
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04530357
Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems, Rep of Kazakhstan
Zakarya K, EClinicalMedicine, 2021 a

Full text
Commentary
Inactivated virus

QazCovid-in

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy adults with no history of COVID-19 that tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 and HIV virus at a single centre in Kazakhstan. N=44
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04352608
Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd
Zhang Y, Lancet Infect Dis, 2020

Full text
Commentary
; Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac 6 mcg D0/28

CoronaVac 3 mcg D0/28

CoronaVac 6 mcg D0/14

CoronaVac 3 mcg D0/14

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 1
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 serology/DNA negative adults in a single centre in China N=144
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04352608
Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd
Zhang Y, Lancet Infect Dis, 2020

Full text
Commentary
; Commentary
Inactivated virus

CoronaVac 3 mcg D0/14

CoronaVac 6 mcg D0/14

CoronaVac 3 mcg D0/28

CoronaVac 6 mcg D0/28

Adjuvant

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy SARS-CoV-2 serology/DNA negative adults in a single centre in China N=600
Some concerns
Details

Full description