Vaccines for covid-19 patients

Below you can access forest plots for all the vaccine comparisons where data are available as well as the general characteristics of each trial with risk of bias assessment.

  • For phase 1-2 studies, we report on the general charecteristics and assess the risk of Bias for safety outcomes only.

  • For phase 2-3 trials we provide the evidence synthesis with forest plots and summary of findings table and evidence profile.

    Results for each vaccine comparisons are the summary of evidence from the latest study report results. Results from phase1-2 studies are included in forest plots for the chosen vaccine dose and schedule.

    Analyses are updated every Friday

    Treatment comparisons

    We report below the forest plots for the main treatment comparisons.

    Description of primary studies

    In this table, we report the main characteristics of the COVID-19 vaccine candidates from RCTs identified. The presented data is preliminary and ROB assessment is still under quality control. Please contact us if you notice an inaccuracy.

    Risk of bias appears in black for some studies because the assessment data is not available to proceed with the assessment. Non randomized studies are not included in the table.

    Press releases

    We acknowledged the publication of press release on the findings of the Novavax vaccine: COVID-19 Vaccine Demonstrates 89.3% Efficacy in UK Phase 3 Trial ">Novavax vaccine We will summarize and assess the study results once the full study reports have been published.

    Last update: 07/05/2021

    Trial Type Comparisons Design Participants Sample size Overall risk
    of bias
    Highest assessment
    Full description
    Intervention 1 Intervention 2
    NCT04470427
    ModernaTX
    Baden LR, N Engl J Med, 2020
    COVE
    New

    Full text
    Commentary
    RNA based vaccine

    mRNA-1273

    Placebo

    RCT
    Phase 3
    Healthy adults with no known history of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 99 centers in the US N=30420
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04651790
    Sinovac Research and Development Co., Ltd
    Bueno S, medRxiv, 2021

    Full text
    Commentary
    Commentary
    Inactivated virus

    CoronaVac

    Placebo

    RCT
    Phase 3
    Adult healthcare workers with no history of confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection who were in contact with possible or confirmed cases of COVID-19 in 8 sites in Chile. N=434
    Low
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04495933
    The University of Queensland; Syneos Health; CSIRO Manufacturing; Seqirus; Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations
    Chappell K, SSRN, 2021
    New

    Full text
    Commentary
    Protein subunit

    SARS-CoV-2 Sclamp 5-mcg D

    SARS-CoV-2 Sclamp 15-mcg

    SARS-CoV-2 Sclamp 45-mcg

    SARS-CoV-2 Sclamp 45-mcg

    Placebo

    RCT
    Phase 1
    Healthy SARS-CoV-2 infection-free adults aged 18-55 at one center in Australia. N=120
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04412538
    Institute of Medical Biology (IMB), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS).
    Che Y, Clin Infect Dis, 2020

    Full text
    Commentary
    Inactivated virus

    KMS-1 100 EU D0/14

    KMS-1 150 EU D0/14

    KMS-1 100 EU D0/28

    KMS-1 150 EU D0/28

    Adjuvant

    RCT
    Phase 2
    Healthy SARS-CoV-2 serology/DNA negative adults in two centres in China N=750
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04471519 ; CTRI/2
    Bharat Biotech
    Ella R, Lancet Infect Dis, 2021

    Full text
    Commentary
    Inactivated virus

    3mcg BBV152 + Algel-IMDG

    6mcg BBV152 + Algel-IMDG

    6mcg BBV152 + Algel

    Adjuvant

    RCT
    Phase 1
    Healthy SARS-CoV-2 serology/PCR negative adults in 11 centres in India N=375
    Low
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04471519 ; CTRI/2
    Bharat Biotech
    Ella R, Lancet Infect Dis, 2021
    Updated

    Full text
    Commentary
    ; Commentary
    Inactivated virus

    6mcg BBV152 + Algel-IMDG

    3mcg BBV152 + Algel-IMDG

    RCT
    Phase 2
    Healthy adults (<65 yo) and children (≥12 yo)volunteers, SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in 9 centres in India N=380
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04368988
    Novavax, Inc
    Formica N, medRxiv, 2021

    Full text
    Commentary
    Commentary
    Protein subunit

    NVX-CoV2373 5mcg D0/21

    NVX-CoV2373 5mcg D0

    25mcg NVX-CoV2373 D0/D21

    25mcg NVX-CoV2373 D0

    Placebo D0/D21

    RCT
    Phase 2
    Healthy adults (stable comorbidities and confirmed COVID-19 with mild symptoms permitted) aged 18-84 years at 17 centers in Australia and USA N=1288
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04551547
    Sinovac Life Sciences
    Han B, SSRN, 2021

    Full text
    Commentary
    Commentary
    Inactivated virus

    CoronaVac 1.5 mcg

    Adjuvant

    CoronaVac 3.0 mcg

    RCT
    Phase 1/2
    Healthy children and adolescents aged 3-17 years with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a single centre in China. N=552
    Low
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04368988
    Novavax
    Keech C, N Engl J Med, 2020

    Full text
    Commentary
    Non replicating viral vector

    25mcg NVX-D0/21

    5mcg NVX/M1-D0/21

    25mcg NVX/M1-D0/21

    25mcg NVX/M1+Placebo-D0/2

    Placebo

    RCT
    Phase 1
    Healthy adult volunteers, SARS-CoV-2 infection-free and no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection in two centres in Australia. N=134
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04530396
    Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology
    Logunov D, Lancet, 2021
    RESIST

    Full text
    Commentary
    ; Commentary
    ; Commentary
    Non replicating viral vector

    Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26-S/rAd

    Placebo

    RCT
    Phase 3
    SARS-CoV-2- and HIV infection-free adult volunteers at 25 centers in Russia N=21977
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04444674
    University of Oxford/AstraZeneca
    Madhi S, N Engl J Med, 2021
    COV005
    Updated

    Full text
    Commentary
    Non replicating viral vector

    ChAdOx1 5X10^10vp D0/D28

    Placebo

    RCT
    Phase 1-2
    Healthy adult volunteers that were HIV-negative and SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in 7 centres in South Africa N=2026 N/A

    Full description

    NCT04456595
    Sinovac Biotech
    Palacios R, SSRN, 2021
    PROFISCOV

    Full text
    Commentary
    Inactivated virus

    CoronaVac

    Placebo

    RCT
    Phase 3
    Healthcare professionals with or without previous COVID-19 infection caring for COVID-19 patients at 16 centers in Brazil. N=12408
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04368728
    BioNTech/Fosun Pharma/Pfizer
    Polack F, N Engl J Med, 2020

    Full text
    Commentary
    ; Commentary
    ; Commentary
    ; Commentary
    ; Commentary
    RNA based vaccine

    BNT162b2

    Placebo

    RCT
    Phase 2/3
    Healthy SARS-CoV-2 DNA negative adults in multiple centres in Argentina, Brazil, Germany, South Africa, Turkey, and the USA N=43448
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04412538
    The Institute of Medical Biology (IMB), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAM
    Pu J, MedRxiv, 2020

    Full text
    Commentary
    ; Commentary
    Inactivated virus

    KMS-1 100 EU D0/14

    KMS-1 100 EU D0/28

    Placebo

    RCT
    Phase 1
    Healthy adults aged 18 to 59 years, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid or antibodies negative in a single centre in China N=192
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04405908
    Clover Biopharmaceuticals, Chengdu, China
    Richmond P, Lancet, 2021

    Full text
    Commentary
    Protein subunit

    SCB-2019 3 mcg

    SCB-2019 3 mcg + AS03

    SCB-2019 3 mcg + CpG/Alum

    SCB-2019 9 mcg

    SCB-2019 9 mcg + AS03

    SCB-2019 9 mcg + CpG/Alum

    SCB-2019 30 mcg

    SCB-2019 30 mcg + AS03

    SCB-2019 30 mcg + CpG/Alu

    Placebo

    RCT
    Phase 1
    Healthy SARS-CoV-2 serology/DNA negative adults aged 18-75 years at one study center in Australia N=151
    Low
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04505722
    Janssen Biotech, Inc.
    Sadoff J, N Engl J Med, 2021
    ENSEMBLE
    New

    Full text
    Commentary
    Non replicating viral vector

    Ad26.COV2.S (5×10^10 vp)

    Placebo

    RCT
    Phase 3
    Adults >18 years of age at 213 centers in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, South Africa and USA N=44325
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04436276
    Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies
    Sadoff J, N Engl J Med, 2021

    Full text
    Commentary
    Non replicating viral vector

    Ad26.COV2.S 5x10^10vp

    Ad26.COV2.S 1x10^11vp

    Placebo

    RCT
    Phase 1-2
    Healthy SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negative adults 18-55 years old and elderly >65 years old in multiple centres in Belgium and the US N=810
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04533399; PACTR202009726132275
    Novavax
    Shinde V, medRxiv, 2021

    Full text
    Commentary
    Commentary
    Protein subunit

    5mcg NVX-CoV2373

    Placebo

    RCT
    Phase 2a/b
    HIV-negative adults (18 to 84 years) and medically stable HIV-positive adults (18 to 64 years) at 16 sites in South Africa N=4406
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    ISRCTN89951424
    University of Oxford/AstraZeneca
    Voysey M, Lancet, 2020
    COV003
    Updated

    Full text
    Commentary
    Non replicating viral vector

    ChAdOx1 SD/SD

    MenACWY/saline

    RCT
    Phase 3
    Healthy SARS-CoV-2 serology/DNA negative adults in six centres in Brazil N=10002
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04324606 / EudraC
    University of Oxford/AstraZeneca
    Voysey M, Lancet, 2021
    COV001/COV002/COV003/COV005

    Full text
    Commentary
    ; Commentary
    ; Commentary
    Non replicating viral vector

    ChAdOx1

    MenACWY/saline

    RCT
    phase 1/2/3
    Adults seronegative at baseline from four studies in multiple centres in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK N=24422
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04400838
    University of Oxford/AstraZeneca
    Voysey M, Lancet, 2020
    COV002
    Updated

    Full text
    Commentary
    Non replicating viral vector

    ChAdOx1 LD/SD

    ChAdOx1 SD/SD

    MenACWY

    RCT
    Phase 2/3
    Healthy adults in 18 centres in the UK N=10673
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04368728
    BioNTech SE, Pfizer
    Walsh E, N Engl J Med, 2020
    New

    Full text
    Commentary
    RNA based vaccine

    BNT162b1 10 mcg D1/21

    BNT162b1 20 mcg D1/21

    BNT162b1 30 mcg D1/21

    BNT162b1 100 mcg D1/21

    BNT162b2 10 mcg D1/21

    BNT162b2 20 mcg D1/21

    BNT162b2 30 mcg D1/21

    BNT162b1 30 mcg D1/21

    RCT
    Phase 1
    Healthy SARS-CoV-2 serology/DNA negative adults in four centres in USA N=195
    Low
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04450004
    Medicago
    Ward B, medRxiv, 2020

    Full text
    Commentary
    ; Commentary
    Virus-Like particle (VLP)

    CoVLP 3.75mcg + CpG1018

    CoVLP 3.75mcg + AS03

    CoVLP 7.5mcg + CpG1018

    CoVLP 7.5mcg + AS03

    CoVLP 15mcg + CpG1018

    CoVLP 15mcg + AS03

    CoVLP 3.75mcg

    CoVLP 3.75mcg

    CoVLP 7.5mcg

    CoVLP 7.5mcg

    CoVLP 15mcg

    CoVLP 15mcg

    RCT
    Phase 1
    Healthy SARS-CoV-2 infection-free adults aged 18-55 years at 2 centers in Canada N=180
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04383574
    Sinovac Biotech
    Wu Z, Lancet Infect Dis, 2021

    Full text
    Commentary
    ; Commentary
    Inactivated virus

    CoronaVac 1.5mcg D0/28

    CoronaVac 3mcg D0/28

    CoronaVac 6mcg D0/28

    Adjuvant

    RCT
    Phase 2
    Healthy adults aged 60 years and older with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a single centre in China N=422
    Low
    Details

    Full description

    ChiCTR2000032459
    Beijing Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm
    Xia S, Lancet Infect Dis, 2020

    Full text
    Commentary
    Inactivated virus

    BBIBP-CorV 8mcg once

    BBIBP-CorV 4mcg D0/14

    BBIBP-CorV 4mcg D0/21

    BBIBP-CorV 4mcg D0/28

    Adjuvant

    RCT
    Phase 2
    Healthy SARS-CoV-2 serology negative adults 18-59 years old and ≥60 years old in a single centre in China N=448
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    ChiCTR2000031809
    Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co Ltd./Sinopharm
    Xia S, JAMA, 2020

    Full text
    Commentary
    Inactivated virus

    Inactivated 2.5mcg-D0/28/

    Inactivated 5mcg-D0/28/56

    Inactivated 10mcg-D0/28/5

    Inactivated 5mcg-D0/14

    Inactivated 5mcg-D0/21

    Adjuvant

    RCT
    Phase 1
    Healthy adults, aged 18 to 59 years, without history ofSARS-CoV(via on-site inquiry) or SARS-CoV-2 infection (via serologicaland nucleic acid test N=320
    Low
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04466085
    Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical Co., Ltd
    Yang S, Lancet, 2021

    Full text
    Commentary
    Protein subunit

    ZF2001 25 mcg 2 doses

    ZF2001 50 mcg 2 doses

    ZF2001 25 mcg 3 doses

    ZF2001 50 mcg 3 doses

    Adjuvant

    RCT
    Phase 2
    Healthy SARS-CoV-2 infection-free adults aged 18-59 at 1 center in China N=900
    Low
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04445194
    Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences ; Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical Co., Ltd
    Yang S, Lancet, 2021

    Full text
    Commentary
    Protein subunit

    ZF2001 25 mcg 3 doses

    ZF2001 50 mcg 3 doses

    Adjuvant

    RCT
    Phase 1
    Healthy SARS-CoV-2 infection-free adults aged 18-59 at 2 centers in China N=50
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04352608
    Sinovac
    Zhang Y, Lancet Infect Dis, 2020

    Full text
    Commentary
    ; Commentary
    Inactivated virus

    CoronaVac 3 μg D0/14

    CoronaVac 6 μg D0/14

    CoronaVac 3 μg D0/28

    CoronaVac 6 μg D0/28

    Adjuvant

    RCT
    Phase 2
    Healthy SARS-CoV-2 serology/DNA negative adults in a single centre in China N=600
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    NCT04341389
    CanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
    Zhu F, Lancet, 2020

    Full text
    Commentary
    Commentary
    Non replicating viral vector

    Ad5-vectored 1×10¹¹ vp

    Ad5-vectored 1×10¹¹ vp

    Ad5-vectored 5×10¹⁰ vp

    Ad5-vectored 5×10¹⁰ vp

    Placebo

    Placebo

    RCT
    Phase 2
    Healthy adult volunteers with HIV-negative and SARS-CoV-2 infection-free in a single centre in China. N=508
    Some concerns
    Details

    Full description

    For risk of bias assessment, we are considering the “effect of assignment to intervention” which might not be the analysis planned and reported by investigators. Consequently, when investigators planned to assess and report the “per-protocol” effect, the risk of bias for domain 2 may be evaluated as “some concerns”. We will contact investigators to obtain the results of the intent-to-treat analysis.