COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness
(Randomized evidence)

Methods

Protocol

Analyses are updated every two weeks

meta-COVID

Perform your own analysis using COVID-NMA data, create and download your forest plots by clicking below:

go to metacovid

Vaccine types

Vaccine efficacy and safety for vaccine vs placebo / no vaccine (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy and safety for vaccine vs vaccine (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy and safety against variants of concern (forest plots)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of heterologous vs homologous vaccination (tables)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of booster vs no booster (tables)

Vaccine efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of booster VS booster (tables)

Trials reports under extraction

In addition to the below included trials, we have included and presently extracting 21 new vaccine randomized trials

Description of primary studies

In this table, we report the main characteristics of the COVID-19 vaccine candidates from RCTs identified, in addition to the overall risk of bias assessment.

As of January 2022, we will extract and present results of early phase trials only when the dose has been selected. Results from phase 1-2 studies are included in forest plots for the chosen vaccine dose and schedule only.

Search studies

Search by Vaccine name Author Registration number
Trial Type Comparisons Design Participants Sample size Overall risk
of bias
Highest assessment
Full description
Intervention 1 Intervention 2
CTRI/2021/01/030416
Zydus Cadila
Khobragade A, Lancet , 2022
New

Full text
Commentary
DNA based vaccine

ZyCoV-D 2mg D0/28/56

Placebo

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults and adolescents aged (≥12 years) with no previous history of COVID-19 at 49 centers in India. N=27703
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04712110
Novavax
Masuda T, Vaccine, 2022 b
New

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

NVX-CoV2373

Placebo

RCT
Phase 1-2
Healthy Japanese adults aged ≥ 20 years with no history/risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and no prior exposure to other approved/investigational SARS-CoV-2 vaccines or treatments at 2 centers in Japan. N=200
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04864561
Valneva
Lazarus, SSRN, 2022
New

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Inactivated virus

VLA2001 (33 AU)

ChAdOx1

RCT
Phase 3
Medically stable adults, 30 years and older, at 26 centers in the UK. N=2975
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04649021
Pfizer/BioNTech+Fosun Pharma
Hui AH, SSRN, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults and those with a pre-existing stable condition, at 2 centers in China. N=960
Low
Details

Full description

NCT04796896
ModernaTX
Creech CB, N Engl J Med, 2022
KidCOVE

Full text
Commentary
RNA based vaccine

mRNA-1273 (50 mcg D0/28)

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2-3
Children aged 6-11 years, healthy or with stable chronic conditions and no known recent history of COVID-19 infection, at 87 centers in Canada and USA. N=4016
Some concerns
Details

Full description

ISRCTN73765130 ; EudraCT 2021-002175-19
Pfizer/BioNTech;ModernaTX
Munro APS, Lancet Infect Dis, 2022
COV-BOOST

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
(22)00282-1/fulltext
RNA based vaccine

BNT162b2 + 2 booster doses BNT162b2

ChadOx1 + boost 2 doses BNT162b2

BNT162b2 + booster dose BNT162b2+ 2nd booster half mRNA-1273

ChadOx1 + boost 1 dose BNT162b2+ half dose m-RNA 1273

RCT
Phase 2
Healthy adults aged 30 years or over, including elderly and those with well controlled or mild-moderate comorbidity, who had received a 2-dose primary schedule of either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 and a BNT162b2 booster at 18 centers in the UK N=166
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT04646590
Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical
Dai L, N Engl J Med, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

ZF2001

Placebo

RCT
Phase 3
Adults 18 years of age or older with no history of Covid-19, positive tests for SARS-CoV-2 exposure or vaccination, or of congenital or acquired immune deficiency or autoimmune disease at 32 clinical centers across Uzbekistan, Indonesia, Pakistan, Ecuador and China. N=28904
Some concerns
Details

Full description

NCT05096832
Livzon Pharmaceutical
Xuan-Yi Wang, Emerg Microbes Infec, 2022

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

Prime vaccination BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac/ boost V-01

Prime vaccination BBIBP-CorV or CoronaVac/ Placebo

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults or those with stable chronic conditions, with no previous history of COVID-19, at 15 centers in Pakistan and Malaysia. N=10241
Some concerns
Details

Full description

CTRI/2021/10/037066
Biological E. Limited
Thuluva , medRxiv, 2022 a

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

BECOV2<12 to ≥5

BECOV2<18 to ≥12

Placebo

RCT
Phase 2-3
Healthy children and adolescents who were SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody negative in 23 centers in India N=1092
Low
Details

Full description

CTRI/2021/08/036074
Biological E;AstraZeneca+University of Oxford
Thuluva , medRxiv, 2022 b

Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Protein subunit

2 IM doses of 25 mcg BECOV2

ChAdOx1

RCT
Phase 3
Healthy adults without a history of Covid-19 vaccination or SARS-CoV-2 infection at 20 centers in India. N=2140
Some concerns
Details

Full description