Non-randomized studies

On September 2, 2020, considering the increase in randomized controlled trials with results available, the steering committee decided to exclude non-randomized studies from the living systematic review. From this date, this page will no longer be updated and we will consider only randomized controlled trials in our living systematic review.

Treatment comparisons

We report below the forest plots for the main treatment comparisons.

Please choose a Treatment Comparison:

  • Therapeutic enoxaparin or heparin vs Prophylactic enoxaparin or heparin
  • Hydroxychloroquine vs Standard care
  • Convalescent plasma vs Standard care
  • Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin vs Standard Care
  • Ivermectin vs Standard Care
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin vs Standard care
  • Corticosteroids vs Standard Care
  • Tocilizumab vs Standard care
  • Azithromycin vs Standard care

Reboot the table and see all comparisons

Description of primary studies

In this table, we report the main characteristics of the NRS identified.

The link in the column Overall risk of bias will give you access to a complete description of the assessment of each risk of bias domain with supports for judgement. The overall risk of bias reported in the table corresponds to the highest risk of bias for the outcomes assessed for the systematic review. The link in the column Full description will give you access to the general characteristics of the study.

The components included in the standard of care vary among the included studies. For example, the standard of care may include antiviral treatments in some studies, but not in others. We are in the process of contacting the study authors to obtain more information.

We acknowledge that we may have been unable to extract some information from pre-prints, as they represent preliminary forms of scientific communication. We perform daily database searches to identify if an included pre-print has been published in a scientific journal, and we will use the published paper to update our extraction.

Following the publication of an expression of concern by the Lancet (June 3, 2020) regarding the paper by Mandeep Mehra et al—Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis, and the retraction by 3 of the authors (June 4, 2020), we decided to delete data related to this study from our website

Trial Comparisons Design Participants Sample size Overall risk of bias Full description
Treatment 1 Treatment 2
N/A
Shao Z, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Intravenous immunoglobulin Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (critical) admitted to 8 centers in China. N=325
Serious
Details
Full description
N/A
Rajter J, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Ivermectin Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with moderate, severe and critical confirmed COVID 19 hospitalized to four hospitals in USA N=280
Serious
Details
Full description
N/A
Albani F, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Corticosteroid Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with COVID-19 severe admitted to a single center in Italy N=1403
Serious
Details
Full description
N/A
Motta J, medRxiv, 2020, ,
Full text
Commentary
therapeutic enoxaparin or heparin prophylactic enoxaparin or heparin Non-randomized study Patients with COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to two centers in USA N=*
Serious
Details
Full description
N/A
Yu B, Sci China Life Sci, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Hydroxychloroquine Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (critical) admitted to a single center in the China. N=550
Serious
Details
Full description
N/A
Mahevas M, BMJ, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Commentary
Hydroxychloroquine Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with COVID-19 (moderate), hospitalized and requiring oxygen, admitted to four centers in France N=181
Moderate
Details
Full description
N/A
Geleris J, N Engl J Med, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Hydroxychloroquine Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (unclear severity) admitted to one center in the USA. N=1085
Serious
Details
Full description
N/A
Liu, STH, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Convalescent plasma Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with COVID-19 (moderate/severe/critical) admitted to a single centre in the USA. N=195
Moderate
Details
Full description
N/A
Somers EC, Clin Infect Dis, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Tocilizumab Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (critical) admitted to a single center in USA. N=154
Serious
Details
Full description
N/A
Ip A, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Pubpeer
Azithromycin Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with confirmed COVID-19 hospitalized within a 13- hospital network N=2512
Serious
Details
Full description
Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin Standard care
Serious
Details
Hydroxychloroquine Standard care
Serious
Details
Tocilizumab Standard care
Serious
Details
NCT04366206
Rossi B, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Tocilizumab Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with COVID-19 (severe) admitted to a single center in France. N=168
Moderate
Details
Full description
N/A
Magagnoli J, Med, 2020
Full text
Pubpeer
Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with confirmed COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to a multiple centers in USA. N=368
Serious
Details
Full description
Hydroxychloroquine Standard care
N/A
Martínez-Sans J, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Tocilizumab Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to 17 centers in Spain. N=1229
Serious
Details
Full description
*
Sbidian E, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Pubpeer
Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with COVID-19 admitted to 39 centers in France. N=4642
Moderate
Details
Full description
Hydroxychloroquine Standard care
EUPAS34753
Fernández Cruz A, AAC ASM, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Methylprednisolone Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (moderate, severe, critical) and complicated with ARDS and/or an hyperinflammatory syndrome admitted to a single center in Spain N=463
Serious
Details
Full description
NCT04323592
Salton F, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Methylprednisolone Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with confimed COVID-19 pneumonia(severe) admitted to fourteen centers in Italy N=173
Serious
Details
Full description
*
Wu J, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Pubpeer
Corticosteroids (HC, MPS, DM) 6 days Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with COVID-19 (severe-critical) admitted to two centers China N=720
Serious
Details
Full description
Corticosteroids (HC, MPS, DM) 5 days Standard care
N/A
Majmundar M, medRxiv, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Corticosteroids (MPS/Pred/HC/D) Standard care Non-randomized study Patients with COVID-19 (moderate-severe) admitted to a single center USA N=205
Serious
Details
Full description
N/A
Arshad S, Int J Infect Dis, 2020
Full text
Commentary
Hydroxychloroquine Standard Care Non-randomized study Patients with COVID-19 (moderate-critical) admitted to 6 centers in USA N=2541
Serious
Details
Full description

Freedberg, DE, medRxiv, 2020 study assessing Famotidine vs Standard of Care was excluded from the systematic review due to prevalent user bias