Note: The risk of bias by domain corresponds to the highest risk of bias among outcomes by domain.
The overall risk of bias corresponds to the overall highest risk of bias assessed among outcomes.
|Bias||Author's judgement||Support for judgement|
|Quote: "Patients were randomly assigned to either the favipiravir group or the control group, in the ratio of 2:1, by simple randomization with no stratification. Randomized treatment was open-label. Patients were assigned to a serial number by the study coordinator. Each serial number was linked to a computer-generated randomization list assigning the antiviral treatment regimens"
Comment: Allocation sequence random. No information on allocation concealment.
|Deviations from intervention||
Comment: Unblinded study
Deviations from intended intervention arising because of the study context:
No participant cross-over.
No information on administration of co-interventions of interest: Biologics and corticosteroids and antivirals.
Hence, no information on whether deviations arose because of the trial context.
Data for the outcome were analyzed using intention-to-treat analysis. This method was considered appropriate to estimate the effect of assignment to intervention.
Risk assessed to be some concerns for the outcomes: Mortality (D28). Time to viral negative conversion. Adverse events. Serious adverse events.
|Missing outcome data||
|Comment: 55 patients randomized; 55 patients analyzed.
Data available for all participants randomized.
Risk assessed to be low for the outcomes: Mortality (D28). Time to viral negative conversion. Adverse events. Serious adverse events.
|Measurement of the outcome||
|Comment: Method of measuring the outcome probably appropriate.
Measurement or ascertainment of outcome probably does not differ between groups.
Unblinded study (outcome assessor)
MORTALITY, TIME TO VIRAL NEGATIVE CONVERSION
Mortality and viral negative conversion are observer-reported outcomes not involving judgement.
Risk assessed to be low for the outcomes: Mortality (D28). Time to viral negative conversion
ADVERSE and SERIOUS ADVERSE EVENTS
The authors reported on adverse events and serious adverse events that may contain both clinically- and laboratory-detected events, which can be influenced by knowledge of the intervention assignment, but is not likely in the context of the pandemic.
Risk assessed to be some concerns for the outcomes: Adverse events. Serious adverse events.
|Selection of the reported results||
|Comment: The protocol and registry were retrospective.
No information on whether the results were selected from multiple outcome measurements or analyses of the data.
No information on whether the trial was analyzed as pre-specified.
Risk assessed to be some concerns for the outcome: Mortality (D28). Time to viral negative conversion. Adverse events. Serious adverse events
|Overall risk of bias||