Note: The risk of bias by domain corresponds to the highest risk of bias among outcomes by domain.
The overall risk of bias corresponds to the overall highest risk of bias assessed among outcomes.
|Bias||Author's judgement||Support for judgement|
“Participants were assigned to the intervention or control groups using blocked randomization method. Envelopes were prepared for unmasking. The random allocation procedure was performed by an independent staff of the hospital of RCT setting. The project manager and other colleagues of our study enrolled and assigned participants to interventions”
"Allocation concealment will be done by numbered drug cans that are numbered randomly. The cans will be the same weight and shape and will be prepared by an independent researcher."
Comment: Allocation sequence random. Allocation sequence concealed.
|Deviations from intervention||
|Quote: "open label randomized controlled trial"
Comment: Unblinded study (participants and personnel/carers).
Deviations from intended intervention arising because of the study context:
No participant cross-over.
No information on administration of co-interventions of interest: antivirals, corticosteroids, biologics.
Hence, no information on whether deviations arose because of the trial context.
Data for the outcome were analyzed using intention-to-treat analysis. This method was considered appropriate to estimate the effect of assignment to intervention.
Risk assessed to be some concerns for the outcomes: Mortality (D28). Adverse events.
|Missing outcome data||
|Comment: 100 participants randomized; 100 participants analyzed.
Data available for all participants randomized.
Risk assessed to be low for the outcomes: Mortality (D28). Adverse events.
|Measurement of the outcome||
|Method of measuring the outcome probably appropriate.
Measurement or ascertainment of outcome probably does not differ between groups.
Unblinded study (outcome assessor).
Mortality is an observer-reported outcome not involving judgement.
Risk assessed to be low for the outcomes: Mortality (D28).
The authors reported on adverse events that may contain both clinically- and laboratory-detected events, which can be influenced by knowledge of the intervention assignment, but is not likely in the context of the pandemic.
Risk assessed to be some concerns for the outcomes: Adverse events.
|Selection of the reported results||
|Comment: Neither the protocol nor the statistical analysis plan was available. The prospective registry was available (dated April 18th, 2020) and utilized.
Outcome not pre-specified
No information on whether the result was selected from multiple outcome measurements or analyses of the data.
Trial probably not analyzed as pre-specified.
Risk assessed to be some concerns for the outcome: Mortality (D28). Adverse events.
|Overall risk of bias||